The concept of unsupervised universal sentence encoders has gained traction recently, wherein pre-trained models generate effective task-agnostic fixed-dimensional representations for phrases, sentences and paragraphs. Such methods are of varying complexity, from simple weighted-averages of word vectors to complex language-models based on bidirectional transformers. In this work we propose a novel technique to generate sentence-embeddings in an unsupervised fashion by projecting the sentences onto a fixed-dimensional manifold with the objective of preserving local neighbourhoods in the original space. To delineate such neighbourhoods we experiment with several set-distance metrics, including the recently proposed Word Mover’s distance, while the fixed-dimensional projection is achieved by employing a scalable and efficient manifold approximation method rooted in topological data analysis. We test our approach, which we term EMAP or Embeddings by Manifold Approximation and Projection, on six publicly available text-classification datasets of varying size and complexity. Empirical results show that our method consistently performs similar to or better than several alternative state-of-the-art approaches.
Distributed representation of words, or word embeddings, have motivated methods for calculating semantic representations of word sequences such as phrases, sentences and paragraphs. Most of the existing methods to do so either use algorithms to learn such representations, or improve on calculating weighted averages of the word vectors. In this work, we experiment with spectral methods of signal representation and summarization as mechanisms for constructing such word-sequence embeddings in an unsupervised fashion. In particular, we explore an algorithm rooted in fluid-dynamics, known as higher-order Dynamic Mode Decomposition, which is designed to capture the eigenfrequencies, and hence the fundamental transition dynamics, of periodic and quasi-periodic systems. It is empirically observed that this approach, which we call EigenSent, can summarize transitions in a sequence of words and generate an embedding that can represent well the sequence itself. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first application of a spectral decomposition and signal summarization technique on text, to create sentence embeddings. We test the efficacy of this algorithm in creating sentence embeddings on three public datasets, where it performs appreciably well. Moreover it is also shown that, due to the positive combination of their complementary properties, concatenating the embeddings generated by EigenSent with simple word vector averaging achieves state-of-the-art results.
In this paper we present a solution for tagging funding bodies and grants in scientific articles using a combination of trained sequential learning models, namely conditional random fields (CRF), hidden markov models (HMM) and maximum entropy models (MaxEnt), on a benchmark set created in-house. We apply the trained models to address the BioASQ challenge 5c, which is a newly introduced task that aims to solve the problem of funding information extraction from scientific articles. Results in the dry-run data set of BioASQ task 5c show that the suggested approach can achieve a micro-recall of more than 85% in tagging both funding bodies and grants.