Sukmin Cho


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Discrete Prompt Optimization via Constrained Generation for Zero-shot Re-ranker
Sukmin Cho | Soyeong Jeong | Jeong yeon Seo | Jong Park
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Re-rankers, which order retrieved documents with respect to the relevance score on the given query, have gained attention for the information retrieval (IR) task. Rather than fine-tuning the pre-trained language model (PLM), the large-scale language model (LLM) is utilized as a zero-shot re-ranker with excellent results. While LLM is highly dependent on the prompts, the impact and the optimization of the prompts for the zero-shot re-ranker are not explored yet. Along with highlighting the impact of optimization on the zero-shot re-ranker, we propose a novel discrete prompt optimization method, Constrained Prompt generation (Co-Prompt), with the metric estimating the optimum for re-ranking. Co-Prompt guides the generated texts from PLM toward optimal prompts based on the metric without parameter update. The experimental results demonstrate that Co-Prompt leads to outstanding re-ranking performance against the baselines. Also, Co-Prompt generates more interpretable prompts for humans against other prompt optimization methods.


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Augmenting Document Representations for Dense Retrieval with Interpolation and Perturbation
Soyeong Jeong | Jinheon Baek | Sukmin Cho | Sung Ju Hwang | Jong Park
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Dense retrieval models, which aim at retrieving the most relevant document for an input query on a dense representation space, have gained considerable attention for their remarkable success. Yet, dense models require a vast amount of labeled training data for notable performance, whereas it is often challenging to acquire query-document pairs annotated by humans. To tackle this problem, we propose a simple but effective Document Augmentation for dense Retrieval (DAR) framework, which augments the representations of documents with their interpolation and perturbation. We validate the performance of DAR on retrieval tasks with two benchmark datasets, showing that the proposed DAR significantly outperforms relevant baselines on the dense retrieval of both the labeled and unlabeled documents.

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Query Generation with External Knowledge for Dense Retrieval
Sukmin Cho | Soyeong Jeong | Wonsuk Yang | Jong Park
Proceedings of Deep Learning Inside Out (DeeLIO 2022): The 3rd Workshop on Knowledge Extraction and Integration for Deep Learning Architectures

Dense retrieval aims at searching for the most relevant documents to the given query by encoding texts in the embedding space, requiring a large amount of query-document pairs to train. Since manually constructing such training data is challenging, recent work has proposed to generate synthetic queries from documents and use them to train a dense retriever. However, compared to the manually composed queries, synthetic queries do not generally ask for implicit information, therefore leading to a degraded retrieval performance. In this work, we propose Query Generation with External Knowledge (QGEK), a novel method for generating queries with external information related to the corresponding document. Specifically, we convert a query into a triplet-based template form to accommodate external information and transmit it to a pre-trained language model (PLM). We validate QGEK on both in-domain and out-domain dense retrieval settings. The dense retriever with the queries requiring implicit information is found to make good performance improvement. Also, such queries are similar to manually composed queries, confirmed by both human evaluation and unique & non-unique words distribution.

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Sign Language Production With Avatar Layering: A Critical Use Case over Rare Words
Jung-Ho Kim | Eui Jun Hwang | Sukmin Cho | Du Hui Lee | Jong Park
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Sign language production (SLP) is the process of generating sign language videos from spoken language expressions. Since sign languages are highly under-resourced, existing vision-based SLP approaches suffer from out-of-vocabulary (OOV) and test-time generalization problems and thus generate low-quality translations. To address these problems, we introduce an avatar-based SLP system composed of a sign language translation (SLT) model and an avatar animation generation module. Our Transformer-based SLT model utilizes two additional strategies to resolve these problems: named entity transformation to reduce OOV tokens and context vector generation using a pretrained language model (e.g., BERT) to reliably train the decoder. Our system is validated on a new Korean-Korean Sign Language (KSL) dataset of weather forecasts and emergency announcements. Our SLT model achieves an 8.77 higher BLEU-4 score and a 4.57 higher ROUGE-L score over those of our baseline model. In a user evaluation, 93.48% of named entities were successfully identified by participants, demonstrating marked improvement on OOV issues.