Sumit Bhatia


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HyHTM: Hyperbolic Geometry-based Hierarchical Topic Model
Simra Shahid | Tanay Anand | Nikitha Srikanth | Sumit Bhatia | Balaji Krishnamurthy | Nikaash Puri
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Hierarchical Topic Models (HTMs) are useful for discovering topic hierarchies in a collection of documents. However, traditional HTMs often produce hierarchies where lower-level topics are unrelated and not specific enough to their higher-level topics. Additionally, these methods can be computationally expensive. We present HyHTM - a Hyperbolic geometry-based Hierarchical Topic Model - that addresses these limitations by incorporating hierarchical information from hyperbolic geometry to explicitly model hierarchies in topic models. Experimental results with four baselines show that HyHTM can better attend to parent-child relationships among topics. HyHTM produces coherent topic hierarchies that specialize in granularity from generic higher-level topics to specific lower-level topics. Further, our model is significantly faster and leaves a much smaller memory footprint than our best-performing baseline. We have made the source code for our algorithm publicly accessible.

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INGENIOUS: Using Informative Data Subsets for Efficient Pre-Training of Language Models
H S V N S Kowndinya Renduchintala | Krishnateja Killamsetty | Sumit Bhatia | Milan Aggarwal | Ganesh Ramakrishnan | Rishabh Iyer | Balaji Krishnamurthy
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

A salient characteristic of pre-trained language models (PTLMs) is a remarkable improvement in their generalization capability and emergence of new capabilities with increasing model capacity and pre-training dataset size. Consequently, we are witnessing the development of enormous models pushing the state-of-the-art. It is, however, imperative to realize that this inevitably leads to prohibitively long training times, extortionate computing costs, and a detrimental environmental impact. Significant efforts are underway to make PTLM training more efficient through innovations in model architectures, training pipelines, and loss function design, with scant attention being paid to optimizing the utility of training data. The key question that we ask is whether it is possible to train PTLMs by employing only highly informative subsets of the training data while maintaining downstream performance? Building upon the recent progress in informative data subset selection, we show how we can employ submodular optimization to select highly representative subsets of the training corpora and demonstrate that the proposed framework can be applied to efficiently train multiple PTLMs (BERT, BioBERT, GPT-2) using only a fraction of data. Further, we perform a rigorous empirical evaluation to show that the resulting models achieve up to ~99% of the performance of the fully-trained models. We made our framework publicly available at


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LM-CORE: Language Models with Contextually Relevant External Knowledge
Jivat Kaur | Sumit Bhatia | Milan Aggarwal | Rachit Bansal | Balaji Krishnamurthy
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Large transformer-based pre-trained language models have achieved impressive performance on a variety of knowledge-intensive tasks and can capture factual knowledge in their parameters. We argue that storing large amounts of knowledge in the model parameters is sub-optimal given the ever-growing amounts of knowledge and resource requirements. We posit that a more efficient alternative is to provide explicit access to contextually relevant structured knowledge to the model and train it to use that knowledge. We present LM-CORE – a general framework to achieve this– that allows decoupling of the language model training from the external knowledge source and allows the latter to be updated without affecting the already trained model. Experimental results show that LM-CORE, having access to external knowledge, achieves significant and robust outperformance over state-of-the-art knowledge-enhanced language models on knowledge probing tasks; can effectively handle knowledge updates; and performs well on two downstream tasks. We also present a thorough error analysis highlighting the successes and failures of LM-CORE. Our code and model checkpoints are publicly available.

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CoSe-Co: Text Conditioned Generative CommonSense Contextualizer
Rachit Bansal | Milan Aggarwal | Sumit Bhatia | Jivat Kaur | Balaji Krishnamurthy
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Pre-trained Language Models (PTLMs) have been shown to perform well on natural language tasks. Many prior works have leveraged structured commonsense present in the form of entities linked through labeled relations in Knowledge Graphs (KGs) to assist PTLMs. Retrieval approaches use KG as a separate static module which limits coverage since KGs contain finite knowledge. Generative methods train PTLMs on KG triples to improve the scale at which knowledge can be obtained. However, training on symbolic KG entities limits their applicability in tasks involving natural language text where they ignore overall context. To mitigate this, we propose a CommonSense Contextualizer (CoSe-Co) conditioned on sentences as input to make it generically usable in tasks for generating knowledge relevant to the overall context of input text. To train CoSe-Co, we propose a novel dataset comprising of sentence and commonsense knowledge pairs. The knowledge inferred by CoSe-Co is diverse and contain novel entities not present in the underlying KG. We augment generated knowledge in Multi-Choice QA and Open-ended CommonSense Reasoning tasks leading to improvements over current best methods on CSQA, ARC, QASC and OBQA datasets. We also demonstrate its applicability in improving performance of a baseline model for paraphrase generation task.


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A Topic-Aligned Multilingual Corpus of Wikipedia Articles for Studying Information Asymmetry in Low Resource Languages
Dwaipayan Roy | Sumit Bhatia | Prateek Jain
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Wikipedia is the largest web-based open encyclopedia covering more than three hundred languages. However, different language editions of Wikipedia differ significantly in terms of their information coverage. We present a systematic comparison of information coverage in English Wikipedia (most exhaustive) and Wikipedias in eight other widely spoken languages (Arabic, German, Hindi, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish and Turkish). We analyze the content present in the respective Wikipedias in terms of the coverage of topics as well as the depth of coverage of topics included in these Wikipedias. Our analysis quantifies and provides useful insights about the information gap that exists between different language editions of Wikipedia and offers a roadmap for the IR community to bridge this gap.

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Schema Aware Semantic Reasoning for Interpreting Natural Language Queries in Enterprise Settings
Jaydeep Sen | Tanaya Babtiwale | Kanishk Saxena | Yash Butala | Sumit Bhatia | Karthik Sankaranarayanan
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Natural Language Query interfaces allow the end-users to access the desired information without the need to know any specialized query language, data storage, or schema details. Even with the recent advances in NLP research space, the state-of-the-art QA systems fall short of understanding implicit intents of real-world Business Intelligence (BI) queries in enterprise systems, since Natural Language Understanding still remains an AI-hard problem. We posit that deploying ontology reasoning over domain semantics can help in achieving better natural language understanding for QA systems. In this paper, we specifically focus on building a Schema Aware Semantic Reasoning Framework that translates natural language interpretation as a sequence of solvable tasks by an ontology reasoner. We apply our framework on top of an ontology based, state-of-the-art natural language question-answering system ATHENA, and experiment with 4 benchmarks focused on BI queries. Our experimental numbers empirically show that the Schema Aware Semantic Reasoning indeed helps in achieving significantly better results for handling BI queries with an average accuracy improvement of ~30%


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Topic-Specific Sentiment Analysis Can Help Identify Political Ideology
Sumit Bhatia | Deepak P
Proceedings of the 9th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment and Social Media Analysis

Ideological leanings of an individual can often be gauged by the sentiment one expresses about different issues. We propose a simple framework that represents a political ideology as a distribution of sentiment polarities towards a set of topics. This representation can then be used to detect ideological leanings of documents (speeches, news articles, etc.) based on the sentiments expressed towards different topics. Experiments performed using a widely used dataset show the promise of our proposed approach that achieves comparable performance to other methods despite being much simpler and more interpretable.


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Summarizing Online Forum Discussions – Can Dialog Acts of Individual Messages Help?
Sumit Bhatia | Prakhar Biyani | Prasenjit Mitra
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)


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Thread Specific Features are Helpful for Identifying Subjectivity Orientation of Online Forum Threads
Prakhar Biyani | Sumit Bhatia | Cornelia Caragea | Prasenjit Mitra
Proceedings of COLING 2012