Sunayana Sitaram


2021

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Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Computational Approaches to Linguistic Code-Switching
Thamar Solorio | Shuguang Chen | Alan W. Black | Mona Diab | Sunayana Sitaram | Victor Soto | Emre Yilmaz | Anirudh Srinivasan
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Computational Approaches to Linguistic Code-Switching

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A Case Study of Efficacy and Challenges in Practical Human-in-Loop Evaluation of NLP Systems Using Checklist
Shaily Bhatt | Rahul Jain | Sandipan Dandapat | Sunayana Sitaram
Proceedings of the Workshop on Human Evaluation of NLP Systems (HumEval)

Despite state-of-the-art performance, NLP systems can be fragile in real-world situations. This is often due to insufficient understanding of the capabilities and limitations of models and the heavy reliance on standard evaluation benchmarks. Research into non-standard evaluation to mitigate this brittleness is gaining increasing attention. Notably, the behavioral testing principle ‘Checklist’, which decouples testing from implementation revealed significant failures in state-of-the-art models for multiple tasks. In this paper, we present a case study of using Checklist in a practical scenario. We conduct experiments for evaluating an offensive content detection system and use a data augmentation technique for improving the model using insights from Checklist. We lay out the challenges and open questions based on our observations of using Checklist for human-in-loop evaluation and improvement of NLP systems. Disclaimer: The paper contains examples of content with offensive language. The examples do not represent the views of the authors or their employers towards any person(s), group(s), practice(s), or entity/entities.

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GCM: A Toolkit for Generating Synthetic Code-mixed Text
Mohd Sanad Zaki Rizvi | Anirudh Srinivasan | Tanuja Ganu | Monojit Choudhury | Sunayana Sitaram
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

Code-mixing is common in multilingual communities around the world, and processing it is challenging due to the lack of labeled and unlabeled data. We describe a tool that can automatically generate code-mixed data given parallel data in two languages. We implement two linguistic theories of code-mixing, the Equivalence Constraint theory and the Matrix Language theory to generate all possible code-mixed sentences in the language-pair, followed by sampling of the generated data to generate natural code-mixed sentences. The toolkit provides three modes: a batch mode, an interactive library mode and a web-interface to address the needs of researchers, linguists and language experts. The toolkit can be used to generate unlabeled text data for pre-trained models, as well as visualize linguistic theories of code-mixing. We plan to release the toolkit as open source and extend it by adding more implementations of linguistic theories, visualization techniques and better sampling techniques. We expect that the release of this toolkit will help facilitate more research in code-mixing in diverse language pairs.

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A Survey of Code-switching: Linguistic and Social Perspectives for Language Technologies
A. Seza Doğruöz | Sunayana Sitaram | Barbara E. Bullock | Almeida Jacqueline Toribio
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The analysis of data in which multiple languages are represented has gained popularity among computational linguists in recent years. So far, much of this research focuses mainly on the improvement of computational methods and largely ignores linguistic and social aspects of C-S discussed across a wide range of languages within the long-established literature in linguistics. To fill this gap, we offer a survey of code-switching (C-S) covering the literature in linguistics with a reflection on the key issues in language technologies. From the linguistic perspective, we provide an overview of structural and functional patterns of C-S focusing on the literature from European and Indian contexts as highly multilingual areas. From the language technologies perspective, we discuss how massive language models fail to represent diverse C-S types due to lack of appropriate training data, lack of robust evaluation benchmarks for C-S (across multilingual situations and types of C-S) and lack of end-to- end systems that cover sociolinguistic aspects of C-S as well. Our survey will be a step to- wards an outcome of mutual benefit for computational scientists and linguists with a shared interest in multilingualism and C-S.

2020

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Proceedings of the The 4th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Code Switching
Thamar Solorio | Monojit Choudhury | Kalika Bali | Sunayana Sitaram | Amitava Das | Mona Diab
Proceedings of the The 4th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Code Switching

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A New Dataset for Natural Language Inference from Code-mixed Conversations
Simran Khanuja | Sandipan Dandapat | Sunayana Sitaram | Monojit Choudhury
Proceedings of the The 4th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Code Switching

Natural Language Inference (NLI) is the task of inferring the logical relationship, typically entailment or contradiction, between a premise and hypothesis. Code-mixing is the use of more than one language in the same conversation or utterance, and is prevalent in multilingual communities all over the world. In this paper, we present the first dataset for code-mixed NLI, in which both the premises and hypotheses are in code-mixed Hindi-English. We use data from Hindi movies (Bollywood) as premises, and crowd-source hypotheses from Hindi-English bilinguals. We conduct a pilot annotation study and describe the final annotation protocol based on observations from the pilot. Currently, the data collected consists of 400 premises in the form of code-mixed conversation snippets and 2240 code-mixed hypotheses. We conduct an extensive analysis to infer the linguistic phenomena commonly observed in the dataset obtained. We evaluate the dataset using a standard mBERT-based pipeline for NLI and report results.

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GLUECoS: An Evaluation Benchmark for Code-Switched NLP
Simran Khanuja | Sandipan Dandapat | Anirudh Srinivasan | Sunayana Sitaram | Monojit Choudhury
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Code-switching is the use of more than one language in the same conversation or utterance. Recently, multilingual contextual embedding models, trained on multiple monolingual corpora, have shown promising results on cross-lingual and multilingual tasks. We present an evaluation benchmark, GLUECoS, for code-switched languages, that spans several NLP tasks in English-Hindi and English-Spanish. Specifically, our evaluation benchmark includes Language Identification from text, POS tagging, Named Entity Recognition, Sentiment Analysis, Question Answering and a new task for code-switching, Natural Language Inference. We present results on all these tasks using cross-lingual word embedding models and multilingual models. In addition, we fine-tune multilingual models on artificially generated code-switched data. Although multilingual models perform significantly better than cross-lingual models, our results show that in most tasks, across both language pairs, multilingual models fine-tuned on code-switched data perform best, showing that multilingual models can be further optimized for code-switching tasks.

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Crowdsourcing Speech Data for Low-Resource Languages from Low-Income Workers
Basil Abraham | Danish Goel | Divya Siddarth | Kalika Bali | Manu Chopra | Monojit Choudhury | Pratik Joshi | Preethi Jyoti | Sunayana Sitaram | Vivek Seshadri
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Voice-based technologies are essential to cater to the hundreds of millions of new smartphone users. However, most of the languages spoken by these new users have little to no labelled speech data. Unfortunately, collecting labelled speech data in any language is an expensive and resource-intensive task. Moreover, existing platforms typically collect speech data only from urban speakers familiar with digital technology whose dialects are often very different from low-income users. In this paper, we explore the possibility of collecting labelled speech data directly from low-income workers. In addition to providing diversity to the speech dataset, we believe this approach can also provide valuable supplemental earning opportunities to these communities. To this end, we conducted a study where we collected labelled speech data in the Marathi language from three different user groups: low-income rural users, low-income urban users, and university students. Overall, we collected 109 hours of data from 36 participants. Our results show that the data collected from low-income participants is of comparable quality to the data collected from university students (who are typically employed to do this work) and that crowdsourcing speech data from low-income rural and urban workers is a viable method of gathering speech data.

2019

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Unsung Challenges of Building and Deploying Language Technologies for Low Resource Language Communities
Pratik Joshi | Christain Barnes | Sebastin Santy | Simran Khanuja | Sanket Shah | Anirudh Srinivasan | Satwik Bhattamishra | Sunayana Sitaram | Monojit Choudhury | Kalika Bali
Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Natural Language Processing

In this paper, we examine and analyze the challenges associated with developing and introducing language technologies to low-resource language communities. While doing so we bring to light the successes and failures of past work in this area, challenges being faced in doing so, and what have they achieved. Throughout this paper, we take a problem-facing approach and describe essential factors which the success of such technologies hinges upon. We present the various aspects in a manner which clarify and lay out the different tasks involved, which can aid organizations looking to make an impact in this area. We take the example of Gondi, an extremely-low resource Indian language, to reinforce and complement our discussion.

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CoSSAT: Code-Switched Speech Annotation Tool
Sanket Shah | Pratik Joshi | Sebastin Santy | Sunayana Sitaram
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Aggregating and Analysing Crowdsourced Annotations for NLP

Code-switching refers to the alternation of two or more languages in a conversation or utterance and is common in multilingual communities across the world. Building code-switched speech and natural language processing systems are challenging due to the lack of annotated speech and text data. We present a speech annotation interface CoSSAT, which helps annotators transcribe code-switched speech faster, more easily and more accurately than a traditional interface, by displaying candidate words from monolingual speech recognizers. We conduct a user study on the transcription of Hindi-English code-switched speech with 10 annotators and describe quantitative and qualitative results.

2018

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Word Embeddings for Code-Mixed Language Processing
Adithya Pratapa | Monojit Choudhury | Sunayana Sitaram
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We compare three existing bilingual word embedding approaches, and a novel approach of training skip-grams on synthetic code-mixed text generated through linguistic models of code-mixing, on two tasks - sentiment analysis and POS tagging for code-mixed text. Our results show that while CVM and CCA based embeddings perform as well as the proposed embedding technique on semantic and syntactic tasks respectively, the proposed approach provides the best performance for both tasks overall. Thus, this study demonstrates that existing bilingual embedding techniques are not ideal for code-mixed text processing and there is a need for learning multilingual word embedding from the code-mixed text.

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Language Modeling for Code-Mixing: The Role of Linguistic Theory based Synthetic Data
Adithya Pratapa | Gayatri Bhat | Monojit Choudhury | Sunayana Sitaram | Sandipan Dandapat | Kalika Bali
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Training language models for Code-mixed (CM) language is known to be a difficult problem because of lack of data compounded by the increased confusability due to the presence of more than one language. We present a computational technique for creation of grammatically valid artificial CM data based on the Equivalence Constraint Theory. We show that when training examples are sampled appropriately from this synthetic data and presented in certain order (aka training curriculum) along with monolingual and real CM data, it can significantly reduce the perplexity of an RNN-based language model. We also show that randomly generated CM data does not help in decreasing the perplexity of the LMs.

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Discovering Canonical Indian English Accents: A Crowdsourcing-based Approach
Sunayana Sitaram | Varun Manjunath | Varun Bharadwaj | Monojit Choudhury | Kalika Bali | Michael Tjalve
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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Phone Merging For Code-Switched Speech Recognition
Sunit Sivasankaran | Brij Mohan Lal Srivastava | Sunayana Sitaram | Kalika Bali | Monojit Choudhury
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Computational Approaches to Linguistic Code-Switching

Speakers in multilingual communities often switch between or mix multiple languages in the same conversation. Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) of code-switched speech faces many challenges including the influence of phones of different languages on each other. This paper shows evidence that phone sharing between languages improves the Acoustic Model performance for Hindi-English code-switched speech. We compare baseline system built with separate phones for Hindi and English with systems where the phones were manually merged based on linguistic knowledge. Encouraged by the improved ASR performance after manually merging the phones, we further investigate multiple data-driven methods to identify phones to be merged across the languages. We show detailed analysis of automatic phone merging in this language pair and the impact it has on individual phone accuracies and WER. Though the best performance gain of 1.2% WER was observed with manually merged phones, we show experimentally that the manual phone merge is not optimal.

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Automatic Detection of Code-switching Style from Acoustics
SaiKrishna Rallabandi | Sunayana Sitaram | Alan W Black
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Computational Approaches to Linguistic Code-Switching

Multilingual speakers switch between languages in an non-trivial fashion displaying inter sentential, intra sentential, and congruent lexicalization based transitions. While monolingual ASR systems may be capable of recognizing a few words from a foreign language, they are usually not robust enough to handle these varied styles of code-switching. There is also a lack of large code-switched speech corpora capturing all these styles making it difficult to build code-switched speech recognition systems. We hypothesize that it may be useful for an ASR system to be able to first detect the switching style of a particular utterance from acoustics, and then use specialized language models or other adaptation techniques for decoding the speech. In this paper, we look at the first problem of detecting code-switching style from acoustics. We classify code-switched Spanish-English and Hindi-English corpora using two metrics and show that features extracted from acoustics alone can distinguish between different kinds of code-switching in these language pairs.

2017

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Curriculum Design for Code-switching: Experiments with Language Identification and Language Modeling with Deep Neural Networks
Monojit Choudhury | Kalika Bali | Sunayana Sitaram | Ashutosh Baheti
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Natural Language Processing (ICON-2017)

2016

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Polyglot Neural Language Models: A Case Study in Cross-Lingual Phonetic Representation Learning
Yulia Tsvetkov | Sunayana Sitaram | Manaal Faruqui | Guillaume Lample | Patrick Littell | David Mortensen | Alan W Black | Lori Levin | Chris Dyer
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Speech Synthesis of Code-Mixed Text
Sunayana Sitaram | Alan W Black
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

Most Text to Speech (TTS) systems today assume that the input text is in a single language and is written in the same language that the text needs to be synthesized in. However, in bilingual and multilingual communities, code mixing or code switching occurs in speech, in which speakers switch between languages in the same utterance. Due to the popularity of social media, we now see code-mixing even in text in these multilingual communities. TTS systems capable of synthesizing such text need to be able to handle text that is written in multiple languages and scripts. Code-mixed text poses many challenges to TTS systems, such as language identification, spelling normalization and pronunciation modeling. In this work, we describe a preliminary framework for synthesizing code-mixed text. We carry out experiments on synthesizing code-mixed Hindi and English text. We find that there is a significant user preference for TTS systems that can correctly identify and pronounce words in different languages.