Suncong Zheng


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CMQA: A Dataset of Conditional Question Answering with Multiple-Span Answers
Yiming Ju | Weikang Wang | Yuanzhe Zhang | Suncong Zheng | Kang Liu | Jun Zhao
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Forcing the answer of the Question Answering (QA) task to be a single text span might be restrictive since the answer can be multiple spans in the context. Moreover, we found that multi-span answers often appear with two characteristics when building the QA system for a real-world application. First, multi-span answers might be caused by users lacking domain knowledge and asking ambiguous questions, which makes the question need to be answered with conditions. Second, there might be hierarchical relations among multiple answer spans. Some recent span-extraction QA datasets include multi-span samples, but they only contain unconditional and parallel answers, which cannot be used to tackle this problem. To bridge the gap, we propose a new task: conditional question answering with hierarchical multi-span answers, where both the hierarchical relations and the conditions need to be extracted. Correspondingly, we introduce CMQA, a Conditional Multiple-span Chinese Question Answering dataset to study the new proposed task. The final release of CMQA consists of 7,861 QA pairs and 113,089 labels, where all samples contain multi-span answers, 50.4% of samples are conditional, and 56.6% of samples are hierarchical. CMQA can serve as a benchmark to study the new proposed task and help study building QA systems for real-world applications. The low performance of models drawn from related literature shows that the new proposed task is challenging for the community to solve.

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Decoupling Mixture-of-Graphs: Unseen Relational Learning for Knowledge Graph Completion by Fusing Ontology and Textual Experts
Ran Song | Shizhu He | Suncong Zheng | Shengxiang Gao | Kang Liu | Zhengtao Yu | Jun Zhao
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Knowledge Graph Embedding (KGE) has been proposed and successfully utilized to knowledge Graph Completion (KGC). But classic KGE paradigm often fail in unseen relation representations. Previous studies mainly utilize the textual descriptions of relations and its neighbor relations to represent unseen relations. In fact, the semantics of a relation can be expressed by three kinds of graphs: factual graph, ontology graph, textual description graph, and they can complement each other. A more common scenario in the real world is that seen and unseen relations appear at the same time. In this setting, the training set (only seen relations) and testing set (both seen and unseen relations) own different distributions. And the train-test inconsistency problem will make KGE methods easiy overfit on seen relations and under-performance on unseen relations. In this paper, we propose decoupling mixture-of-graph experts (DMoG) for unseen relations learning, which could represent the unseen relations in the factual graph by fusing ontology and textual graphs, and decouple fusing space and reasoning space to alleviate overfitting for seen relations. The experiments on two unseen only public datasets and a mixture dataset verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, which improves the state-of-the-art methods by 6.84% in Hits@10 on average.

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Cross-Lingual Contrastive Learning for Fine-Grained Entity Typing for Low-Resource Languages
Xu Han | Yuqi Luo | Weize Chen | Zhiyuan Liu | Maosong Sun | Zhou Botong | Hao Fei | Suncong Zheng
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Fine-grained entity typing (FGET) aims to classify named entity mentions into fine-grained entity types, which is meaningful for entity-related NLP tasks. For FGET, a key challenge is the low-resource problem — the complex entity type hierarchy makes it difficult to manually label data. Especially for those languages other than English, human-labeled data is extremely scarce. In this paper, we propose a cross-lingual contrastive learning framework to learn FGET models for low-resource languages. Specifically, we use multi-lingual pre-trained language models (PLMs) as the backbone to transfer the typing knowledge from high-resource languages (such as English) to low-resource languages (such as Chinese). Furthermore, we introduce entity-pair-oriented heuristic rules as well as machine translation to obtain cross-lingual distantly-supervised data, and apply cross-lingual contrastive learning on the distantly-supervised data to enhance the backbone PLMs. Experimental results show that by applying our framework, we can easily learn effective FGET models for low-resource languages, even without any language-specific human-labeled data. Our code is also available at


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KLMo: Knowledge Graph Enhanced Pretrained Language Model with Fine-Grained Relationships
Lei He | Suncong Zheng | Tao Yang | Feng Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Interactions between entities in knowledge graph (KG) provide rich knowledge for language representation learning. However, existing knowledge-enhanced pretrained language models (PLMs) only focus on entity information and ignore the fine-grained relationships between entities. In this work, we propose to incorporate KG (including both entities and relations) into the language learning process to obtain KG-enhanced pretrained Language Model, namely KLMo. Specifically, a novel knowledge aggregator is designed to explicitly model the interaction between entity spans in text and all entities and relations in a contextual KG. An relation prediction objective is utilized to incorporate relation information by distant supervision. An entity linking objective is further utilized to link entity spans in text to entities in KG. In this way, the structured knowledge can be effectively integrated into language representations. Experimental results demonstrate that KLMo achieves great improvements on several knowledge-driven tasks, such as entity typing and relation classification, comparing with the state-of-the-art knowledge-enhanced PLMs.

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TexSmart: A System for Enhanced Natural Language Understanding
Lemao Liu | Haisong Zhang | Haiyun Jiang | Yangming Li | Enbo Zhao | Kun Xu | Linfeng Song | Suncong Zheng | Botong Zhou | Dick Zhu | Xiao Feng | Tao Chen | Tao Yang | Dong Yu | Feng Zhang | ZhanHui Kang | Shuming Shi
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

This paper introduces TexSmart, a text understanding system that supports fine-grained named entity recognition (NER) and enhanced semantic analysis functionalities. Compared to most previous publicly available text understanding systems and tools, TexSmart holds some unique features. First, the NER function of TexSmart supports over 1,000 entity types, while most other public tools typically support several to (at most) dozens of entity types. Second, TexSmart introduces new semantic analysis functions like semantic expansion and deep semantic representation, that are absent in most previous systems. Third, a spectrum of algorithms (from very fast algorithms to those that are relatively slow but more accurate) are implemented for one function in TexSmart, to fulfill the requirements of different academic and industrial applications. The adoption of unsupervised or weakly-supervised algorithms is especially emphasized, with the goal of easily updating our models to include fresh data with less human annotation efforts.


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Joint Extraction of Entities and Relations Based on a Novel Tagging Scheme
Suncong Zheng | Feng Wang | Hongyun Bao | Yuexing Hao | Peng Zhou | Bo Xu
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Joint extraction of entities and relations is an important task in information extraction. To tackle this problem, we firstly propose a novel tagging scheme that can convert the joint extraction task to a tagging problem.. Then, based on our tagging scheme, we study different end-to-end models to extract entities and their relations directly, without identifying entities and relations separately. We conduct experiments on a public dataset produced by distant supervision method and the experimental results show that the tagging based methods are better than most of the existing pipelined and joint learning methods. What’s more, the end-to-end model proposed in this paper, achieves the best results on the public dataset.


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Hierarchical Memory Networks for Answer Selection on Unknown Words
Jiaming Xu | Jing Shi | Yiqun Yao | Suncong Zheng | Bo Xu | Bo Xu
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Recently, end-to-end memory networks have shown promising results on Question Answering task, which encode the past facts into an explicit memory and perform reasoning ability by making multiple computational steps on the memory. However, memory networks conduct the reasoning on sentence-level memory to output coarse semantic vectors and do not further take any attention mechanism to focus on words, which may lead to the model lose some detail information, especially when the answers are rare or unknown words. In this paper, we propose a novel Hierarchical Memory Networks, dubbed HMN. First, we encode the past facts into sentence-level memory and word-level memory respectively. Then, k-max pooling is exploited following reasoning module on the sentence-level memory to sample the k most relevant sentences to a question and feed these sentences into attention mechanism on the word-level memory to focus the words in the selected sentences. Finally, the prediction is jointly learned over the outputs of the sentence-level reasoning module and the word-level attention mechanism. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach successfully conducts answer selection on unknown words and achieves a better performance than memory networks.

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Text Classification Improved by Integrating Bidirectional LSTM with Two-dimensional Max Pooling
Peng Zhou | Zhenyu Qi | Suncong Zheng | Jiaming Xu | Hongyun Bao | Bo Xu
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is one of the most popular architectures used in Natural Language Processsing (NLP) tasks because its recurrent structure is very suitable to process variable-length text. RNN can utilize distributed representations of words by first converting the tokens comprising each text into vectors, which form a matrix. And this matrix includes two dimensions: the time-step dimension and the feature vector dimension. Then most existing models usually utilize one-dimensional (1D) max pooling operation or attention-based operation only on the time-step dimension to obtain a fixed-length vector. However, the features on the feature vector dimension are not mutually independent, and simply applying 1D pooling operation over the time-step dimension independently may destroy the structure of the feature representation. On the other hand, applying two-dimensional (2D) pooling operation over the two dimensions may sample more meaningful features for sequence modeling tasks. To integrate the features on both dimensions of the matrix, this paper explores applying 2D max pooling operation to obtain a fixed-length representation of the text. This paper also utilizes 2D convolution to sample more meaningful information of the matrix. Experiments are conducted on six text classification tasks, including sentiment analysis, question classification, subjectivity classification and newsgroup classification. Compared with the state-of-the-art models, the proposed models achieve excellent performance on 4 out of 6 tasks. Specifically, one of the proposed models achieves highest accuracy on Stanford Sentiment Treebank binary classification and fine-grained classification tasks.

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Combining Lexical and Semantic-based Features for Answer Sentence Selection
Jing Shi | Jiaming Xu | Yiqun Yao | Suncong Zheng | Bo Xu
Proceedings of the Open Knowledge Base and Question Answering Workshop (OKBQA 2016)

Question answering is always an attractive and challenging task in natural language processing area. There are some open domain question answering systems, such as IBM Waston, which take the unstructured text data as input, in some ways of humanlike thinking process and a mode of artificial intelligence. At the conference on Natural Language Processing and Chinese Computing (NLPCC) 2016, China Computer Federation hosted a shared task evaluation about Open Domain Question Answering. We achieve the 2nd place at the document-based subtask. In this paper, we present our solution, which consists of feature engineering in lexical and semantic aspects and model training methods. As the result of the evaluation shows, our solution provides a valuable and brief model which could be used in modelling question answering or sentence semantic relevance. We hope our solution would contribute to this vast and significant task with some heuristic thinking.