Sung Ju Hwang


2024

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Carpe diem: On the Evaluation of World Knowledge in Lifelong Language Models
Yujin Kim | Jaehong Yoon | Seonghyeon Ye | Sangmin Bae | Namgyu Ho | Sung Ju Hwang | Se-Young Yun
Proceedings of the 2024 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The dynamic nature of knowledge in an ever-changing world presents challenges for language models trained on static data; the model in the real world often requires not only acquiring new knowledge but also overwriting outdated information into updated ones. To study the ability of language models for these time-dependent dynamics in human language, we introduce a novel task, EvolvingQA, a temporally evolving question-answering benchmark designed for training and evaluating LMs on an evolving Wikipedia database. The construction of EvolvingQA is automated with our pipeline using large language models. We uncover that existing continual learning baselines suffer from updating and removing outdated knowledge. Our analysis suggests that models fail to rectify knowledge due to small weight gradients. In addition, we elucidate that language models particularly struggle to reflect the change of numerical or temporal information. Our work aims to model the dynamic nature of real-world information, suggesting faithful evaluations of the evolution-adaptability of language models. Our data construction code and dataset files are available at https://github.com/kimyuji/EvolvingQA_benchmark.

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Adaptive-RAG: Learning to Adapt Retrieval-Augmented Large Language Models through Question Complexity
Soyeong Jeong | Jinheon Baek | Sukmin Cho | Sung Ju Hwang | Jong Park
Proceedings of the 2024 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Retrieval-Augmented Large Language Models (LLMs), which incorporate the non-parametric knowledge from external knowledge bases into LLMs, have emerged as a promising approach to enhancing response accuracy in several tasks, such as Question-Answering (QA). However, even though there are various approaches dealing with queries of different complexities, they either handle simple queries with unnecessary computational overhead or fail to adequately address complex multi-step queries; yet, not all user requests fall into only one of the simple or complex categories. In this work, we propose a novel adaptive QA framework that can dynamically select the most suitable strategy for (retrieval-augmented) LLMs from the simplest to the most sophisticated ones based on the query complexity. Also, this selection process is operationalized with a classifier, which is a smaller LM trained to predict the complexity level of incoming queries with automatically collected labels, obtained from actual predicted outcomes of models and inherent inductive biases in datasets. This approach offers a balanced strategy, seamlessly adapting between the iterative and single-step retrieval-augmented LLMs, as well as the no-retrieval methods, in response to a range of query complexities. We validate our model on a set of open-domain QA datasets, covering multiple query complexities, and show that ours enhances the overall efficiency and accuracy of QA systems, compared to relevant baselines including the adaptive retrieval approaches. Code is available at: https://github.com/starsuzi/Adaptive-RAG.

2023

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Realistic Conversational Question Answering with Answer Selection based on Calibrated Confidence and Uncertainty Measurement
Soyeong Jeong | Jinheon Baek | Sung Ju Hwang | Jong Park
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Conversational Question Answering (ConvQA) models aim at answering a question with its relevant paragraph and previous question-answer pairs that occurred during conversation multiple times. To apply such models to a real-world scenario, some existing work uses predicted answers, instead of unavailable ground-truth answers, as the conversation history for inference. However, since these models usually predict wrong answers, using all the predictions without filtering significantly hampers the model performance. To address this problem, we propose to filter out inaccurate answers in the conversation history based on their estimated confidences and uncertainties from the ConvQA model, without making any architectural changes. Moreover, to make the confidence and uncertainty values more reliable, we propose to further calibrate them, thereby smoothing the model predictions. We validate our models, Answer Selection-based realistic Conversation Question Answering, on two standard ConvQA datasets, and the results show that our models significantly outperform relevant baselines. Code is available at: https://github.com/starsuzi/AS-ConvQA.

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Phrase Retrieval for Open Domain Conversational Question Answering with Conversational Dependency Modeling via Contrastive Learning
Soyeong Jeong | Jinheon Baek | Sung Ju Hwang | Jong Park
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Open-Domain Conversational Question Answering (ODConvQA) aims at answering questions through a multi-turn conversation based on a retriever-reader pipeline, which retrieves passages and then predicts answers with them. However, such a pipeline approach not only makes the reader vulnerable to the errors propagated from the retriever, but also demands additional effort to develop both the retriever and the reader, which further makes it slower since they are not runnable in parallel. In this work, we propose a method to directly predict answers with a phrase retrieval scheme for a sequence of words, reducing the conventional two distinct subtasks into a single one. Also, for the first time, we study its capability for ODConvQA tasks. However, simply adopting it is largely problematic, due to the dependencies between previous and current turns in a conversation. To address this problem, we further introduce a novel contrastive learning strategy, making sure to reflect previous turns when retrieving the phrase for the current context, by maximizing representational similarities of consecutive turns in a conversation while minimizing irrelevant conversational contexts. We validate our model on two ODConvQA datasets, whose experimental results show that it substantially outperforms the relevant baselines with the retriever-reader. Code is available at: https://github.com/starsuzi/PRO-ConvQA.

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A Study on Knowledge Distillation from Weak Teacher for Scaling Up Pre-trained Language Models
Hayeon Lee | Rui Hou | Jongpil Kim | Davis Liang | Sung Ju Hwang | Alexander Min
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Distillation from Weak Teacher (DWT) is a method of transferring knowledge from a smaller, weaker teacher model to a larger student model to improve its performance. Previous studies have shown that DWT can be effective in the vision domain and natural language processing (NLP) pre-training stage. Specifically, DWT shows promise in practical scenarios, such as enhancing new generation or larger models using pre-trained yet older or smaller models and lacking a resource budget. However, the optimal conditions for using DWT have yet to be fully investigated in NLP pre-training. Therefore, this study examines three key factors to optimize DWT, distinct from those used in the vision domain or traditional knowledge distillation. These factors are:(i) the impact of teacher model quality on DWT effectiveness, (ii) guidelines for adjusting the weighting value for DWT loss, and (iii) the impact of parameter remapping as a student model initialization technique for DWT.

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Direct Fact Retrieval from Knowledge Graphs without Entity Linking
Jinheon Baek | Alham Fikri Aji | Jens Lehmann | Sung Ju Hwang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

There has been a surge of interest in utilizing Knowledge Graphs (KGs) for various natural language processing/understanding tasks. The conventional mechanism to retrieve facts in KGs usually involves three steps: entity span detection, entity disambiguation, and relation classification. However, this approach requires additional labels for training each of the three subcomponents in addition to pairs of input texts and facts, and also may accumulate errors propagated from failures in previous steps. To tackle these limitations, we propose a simple knowledge retrieval framework, which directly retrieves facts from the KGs given the input text based on their representational similarities, which we refer to as Direct Fact Retrieval (DiFaR). Specifically, we first embed all facts in KGs onto a dense embedding space by using a language model trained by only pairs of input texts and facts, and then provide the nearest facts in response to the input text. Since the fact, consisting of only two entities and one relation, has little context to encode, we propose to further refine ranks of top-k retrieved facts with a reranker that contextualizes the input text and the fact jointly. We validate our DiFaR framework on multiple fact retrieval tasks, showing that it significantly outperforms relevant baselines that use the three-step approach.

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Language Detoxification with Attribute-Discriminative Latent Space
Jin Myung Kwak | Minseon Kim | Sung Ju Hwang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Transformer-based Language Models (LMs) have achieved impressive results on natural language understanding tasks, but they can also generate toxic text such as insults, threats, and profanity, limiting their real-world applications. To overcome this issue, a few text generation approaches aim to detoxify toxic texts using additional LMs or perturbations. However, previous methods require excessive memory, computations, and time which are serious bottlenecks in their real-world application. To address such limitations, we propose an effective yet efficient method for language detoxification using an attribute-discriminative latent space. Specifically, we project the latent space of an original Transformer LM onto a discriminative latent space that well-separates texts by their attributes using a projection block and an attribute discriminator. This allows the LM to control the text generation to be non-toxic with minimal memory and computation overhead. We validate our model, Attribute-Discriminative Language Model (ADLM) on detoxified language and dialogue generation tasks, on which our method significantly outperforms baselines both in performance and efficiency.

2022

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Augmenting Document Representations for Dense Retrieval with Interpolation and Perturbation
Soyeong Jeong | Jinheon Baek | Sukmin Cho | Sung Ju Hwang | Jong Park
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Dense retrieval models, which aim at retrieving the most relevant document for an input query on a dense representation space, have gained considerable attention for their remarkable success. Yet, dense models require a vast amount of labeled training data for notable performance, whereas it is often challenging to acquire query-document pairs annotated by humans. To tackle this problem, we propose a simple but effective Document Augmentation for dense Retrieval (DAR) framework, which augments the representations of documents with their interpolation and perturbation. We validate the performance of DAR on retrieval tasks with two benchmark datasets, showing that the proposed DAR significantly outperforms relevant baselines on the dense retrieval of both the labeled and unlabeled documents.

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KALA: Knowledge-Augmented Language Model Adaptation
Minki Kang | Jinheon Baek | Sung Ju Hwang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Pre-trained language models (PLMs) have achieved remarkable success on various natural language understanding tasks. Simple fine-tuning of PLMs, on the other hand, might be suboptimal for domain-specific tasks because they cannot possibly cover knowledge from all domains. While adaptive pre-training of PLMs can help them obtain domain-specific knowledge, it requires a large training cost. Moreover, adaptive pre-training can harm the PLM’s performance on the downstream task by causing catastrophic forgetting of its general knowledge. To overcome such limitations of adaptive pre-training for PLM adaption, we propose a novel domain adaption framework for PLMs coined as Knowledge-Augmented Language model Adaptation (KALA), which modulates the intermediate hidden representations of PLMs with domain knowledge, consisting of entities and their relational facts. We validate the performance of our KALA on question answering and named entity recognition tasks on multiple datasets across various domains. The results show that, despite being computationally efficient, our KALA largely outperforms adaptive pre-training.

2021

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Learning to Perturb Word Embeddings for Out-of-distribution QA
Seanie Lee | Minki Kang | Juho Lee | Sung Ju Hwang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

QA models based on pretrained language models have achieved remarkable performance on various benchmark datasets. However, QA models do not generalize well to unseen data that falls outside the training distribution, due to distributional shifts. Data augmentation (DA) techniques which drop/replace words have shown to be effective in regularizing the model from overfitting to the training data. Yet, they may adversely affect the QA tasks since they incur semantic changes that may lead to wrong answers for the QA task. To tackle this problem, we propose a simple yet effective DA method based on a stochastic noise generator, which learns to perturb the word embedding of the input questions and context without changing their semantics. We validate the performance of the QA models trained with our word embedding perturbation on a single source dataset, on five different target domains. The results show that our method significantly outperforms the baseline DA methods. Notably, the model trained with ours outperforms the model trained with more than 240K artificially generated QA pairs.

2020

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Generating Diverse and Consistent QA pairs from Contexts with Information-Maximizing Hierarchical Conditional VAEs
Dong Bok Lee | Seanie Lee | Woo Tae Jeong | Donghwan Kim | Sung Ju Hwang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

One of the most crucial challenges in question answering (QA) is the scarcity of labeled data, since it is costly to obtain question-answer (QA) pairs for a target text domain with human annotation. An alternative approach to tackle the problem is to use automatically generated QA pairs from either the problem context or from large amount of unstructured texts (e.g. Wikipedia). In this work, we propose a hierarchical conditional variational autoencoder (HCVAE) for generating QA pairs given unstructured texts as contexts, while maximizing the mutual information between generated QA pairs to ensure their consistency. We validate our Information Maximizing Hierarchical Conditional Variational AutoEncoder (Info-HCVAE) on several benchmark datasets by evaluating the performance of the QA model (BERT-base) using only the generated QA pairs (QA-based evaluation) or by using both the generated and human-labeled pairs (semi-supervised learning) for training, against state-of-the-art baseline models. The results show that our model obtains impressive performance gains over all baselines on both tasks, using only a fraction of data for training.

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Neural Mask Generator: Learning to Generate Adaptive Word Maskings for Language Model Adaptation
Minki Kang | Moonsu Han | Sung Ju Hwang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

We propose a method to automatically generate a domain- and task-adaptive maskings of the given text for self-supervised pre-training, such that we can effectively adapt the language model to a particular target task (e.g. question answering). Specifically, we present a novel reinforcement learning-based framework which learns the masking policy, such that using the generated masks for further pre-training of the target language model helps improve task performance on unseen texts. We use off-policy actor-critic with entropy regularization and experience replay for reinforcement learning, and propose a Transformer-based policy network that can consider the relative importance of words in a given text. We validate our Neural Mask Generator (NMG) on several question answering and text classification datasets using BERT and DistilBERT as the language models, on which it outperforms rule-based masking strategies, by automatically learning optimal adaptive maskings.

2019

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Episodic Memory Reader: Learning What to Remember for Question Answering from Streaming Data
Moonsu Han | Minki Kang | Hyunwoo Jung | Sung Ju Hwang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We consider a novel question answering (QA) task where the machine needs to read from large streaming data (long documents or videos) without knowing when the questions will be given, which is difficult to solve with existing QA methods due to their lack of scalability. To tackle this problem, we propose a novel end-to-end deep network model for reading comprehension, which we refer to as Episodic Memory Reader (EMR) that sequentially reads the input contexts into an external memory, while replacing memories that are less important for answering unseen questions. Specifically, we train an RL agent to replace a memory entry when the memory is full, in order to maximize its QA accuracy at a future timepoint, while encoding the external memory using either the GRU or the Transformer architecture to learn representations that considers relative importance between the memory entries. We validate our model on a synthetic dataset (bAbI) as well as real-world large-scale textual QA (TriviaQA) and video QA (TVQA) datasets, on which it achieves significant improvements over rule based memory scheduling policies or an RL based baseline that independently learns the query-specific importance of each memory.