Sungchul Kim


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Federated Domain Adaptation for Named Entity Recognition via Distilling with Heterogeneous Tag Sets
Rui Wang | Tong Yu | Junda Wu | Handong Zhao | Sungchul Kim | Ruiyi Zhang | Subrata Mitra | Ricardo Henao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Federated learning involves collaborative training with private data from multiple platforms, while not violating data privacy. We study the problem of federated domain adaptation for Named Entity Recognition (NER), where we seek to transfer knowledge across different platforms with data of multiple domains. In addition, we consider a practical and challenging scenario, where NER datasets of different platforms of federated learning are annotated with heterogeneous tag sets, i.e., different sets of entity types. The goal is to train a global model with federated learning, such that it can predict with a complete tag set, i.e., with all the occurring entity types for data across all platforms. To cope with the heterogeneous tag sets in a multi-domain setting, we propose a distillation approach along with a mechanism of instance weighting to facilitate knowledge transfer across platforms. Besides, we release two re-annotated clinic NER datasets, for testing the proposed method in the clinic domain. Our method shows superior empirical performance for NER with federated learning.

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GPT-4 as an Effective Zero-Shot Evaluator for Scientific Figure Captions
Ting-Yao Hsu | Chieh-Yang Huang | Ryan Rossi | Sungchul Kim | C. Giles | Ting-Hao Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

There is growing interest in systems that generate captions for scientific figures. However, assessing these systems’ output poses a significant challenge. Human evaluation requires academic expertise and is costly, while automatic evaluation depends on often low-quality author-written captions. This paper investigates using large language models (LLMs) as a cost-effective, reference-free method for evaluating figure captions. We first constructed SCICAP-EVAL, a human evaluation dataset that contains human judgments for 3,600 scientific figure captions, both original and machine-made, for 600 arXiv figures. We then prompted LLMs like GPT-4 and GPT-3 to score (1-6) each caption based on its potential to aid reader understanding, given relevant context such as figure-mentioning paragraphs. Results show that GPT-4, used as a zero-shot evaluator, outperformed all other models and even surpassed assessments made by computer science undergraduates, achieving a Kendall correlation score of 0.401 with Ph.D. students’ rankings.

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Summaries as Captions: Generating Figure Captions for Scientific Documents with Automated Text Summarization
Chieh-Yang Huang | Ting-Yao Hsu | Ryan Rossi | Ani Nenkova | Sungchul Kim | Gromit Yeuk-Yin Chan | Eunyee Koh | C Lee Giles | Ting-Hao Huang
Proceedings of the 16th International Natural Language Generation Conference

Good figure captions help paper readers understand complex scientific figures. Unfortunately, even published papers often have poorly written captions. Automatic caption generation could aid paper writers by providing good starting captions that can be refined for better quality. Prior work often treated figure caption generation as a vision-to-language task. In this paper, we show that it can be more effectively tackled as a text summarization task in scientific documents. We fine-tuned PEGASUS, a pre-trained abstractive summarization model, to specifically summarize figure-referencing paragraphs (e.g., “Figure 3 shows...”) into figure captions. Experiments on large-scale arXiv figures show that our method outperforms prior vision methods in both automatic and human evaluations. We further conducted an in-depth investigation focused on two key challenges: (i) the common presence of low-quality author-written captions and (ii) the lack of clear standards for good captions. Our code and data are available at:


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Few-Shot Class-Incremental Learning for Named Entity Recognition
Rui Wang | Tong Yu | Handong Zhao | Sungchul Kim | Subrata Mitra | Ruiyi Zhang | Ricardo Henao
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Previous work of class-incremental learning for Named Entity Recognition (NER) relies on the assumption that there exists abundance of labeled data for the training of new classes. In this work, we study a more challenging but practical problem, i.e., few-shot class-incremental learning for NER, where an NER model is trained with only few labeled samples of the new classes, without forgetting knowledge of the old ones. To alleviate the problem of catastrophic forgetting in few-shot class-incremental learning, we reconstruct synthetic training data of the old classes using the trained NER model, augmenting the training of new classes. We further develop a framework that distills from the existing model with both synthetic data, and real data from the current training set. Experimental results show that our approach achieves significant improvements over existing baselines.


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Edge: Enriching Knowledge Graph Embeddings with External Text
Saed Rezayi | Handong Zhao | Sungchul Kim | Ryan Rossi | Nedim Lipka | Sheng Li
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Knowledge graphs suffer from sparsity which degrades the quality of representations generated by various methods. While there is an abundance of textual information throughout the web and many existing knowledge bases, aligning information across these diverse data sources remains a challenge in the literature. Previous work has partially addressed this issue by enriching knowledge graph entities based on “hard” co-occurrence of words present in the entities of the knowledge graphs and external text, while we achieve “soft” augmentation by proposing a knowledge graph enrichment and embedding framework named Edge. Given an original knowledge graph, we first generate a rich but noisy augmented graph using external texts in semantic and structural level. To distill the relevant knowledge and suppress the introduced noise, we design a graph alignment term in a shared embedding space between the original graph and augmented graph. To enhance the embedding learning on the augmented graph, we further regularize the locality relationship of target entity based on negative sampling. Experimental results on four benchmark datasets demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of Edge in link prediction and node classification.

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Learning Contextualized Knowledge Structures for Commonsense Reasoning
Jun Yan | Mrigank Raman | Aaron Chan | Tianyu Zhang | Ryan Rossi | Handong Zhao | Sungchul Kim | Nedim Lipka | Xiang Ren
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021


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Multilingual Named Entity Recognition using Parallel Data and Metadata from Wikipedia
Sungchul Kim | Kristina Toutanova | Hwanjo Yu
Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)