Sunghyun Park


2023

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On Complementarity Objectives for Hybrid Retrieval
Dohyeon Lee | Seung-won Hwang | Kyungjae Lee | Seungtaek Choi | Sunghyun Park
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Dense retrieval has shown promising results in various information retrieval tasks, and hybrid retrieval, combined with the strength of sparse retrieval, has also been actively studied. A key challenge in hybrid retrieval is to make sparse and dense complementary to each other. Existing models have focused on dense models to capture “residual” features neglected in the sparse models. Our key distinction is to show how this notion of residual complementarity is limited, and propose a new objective, denoted as RoC (Ratio of Complementarity), which captures a fuller notion of complementarity. We propose a two-level orthogonality designed to improve RoC, then show that the improved RoC of our model, in turn, improves the performance of hybrid retrieval. Our method outperforms all state-of-the-art methods on three representative IR benchmarks: MSMARCO-Passage, Natural Questions, and TREC Robust04, with statistical significance. Our finding is also consistent in various adversarial settings.

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Ranking-Enhanced Unsupervised Sentence Representation Learning
Yeon Seonwoo | Guoyin Wang | Changmin Seo | Sajal Choudhary | Jiwei Li | Xiang Li | Puyang Xu | Sunghyun Park | Alice Oh
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Unsupervised sentence representation learning has progressed through contrastive learning and data augmentation methods such as dropout masking. Despite this progress, sentence encoders are still limited to using only an input sentence when predicting its semantic vector. In this work, we show that the semantic meaning of a sentence is also determined by nearest-neighbor sentences that are similar to the input sentence. Based on this finding, we propose a novel unsupervised sentence encoder, RankEncoder. RankEncoder predicts the semantic vector of an input sentence by leveraging its relationship with other sentences in an external corpus, as well as the input sentence itself. We evaluate RankEncoder on semantic textual benchmark datasets. From the experimental results, we verify that 1) RankEncoder achieves 80.07% Spearman’s correlation, a 1.1% absolute improvement compared to the previous state-of-the-art performance, 2) RankEncoder is universally applicable to existing unsupervised sentence embedding methods, and 3) RankEncoder is specifically effective for predicting the similarity scores of similar sentence pairs.

2022

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Open World Classification with Adaptive Negative Samples
Ke Bai | Guoyin Wang | Jiwei Li | Sunghyun Park | Sungjin Lee | Puyang Xu | Ricardo Henao | Lawrence Carin
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Open world classification is a task in natural language processing with key practical relevance and impact. Since the open or unknown category data only manifests in the inference phase, finding a model with a suitable decision boundary accommodating for the identification of known classes and discrimination of the open category is challenging. The performance of existing models is limited by the lack of effective open category data during the training stage or the lack of a good mechanism to learn appropriate decision boundaries. We propose an approach based on Adaptive Negative Samples (ANS) designed to generate effective synthetic open category samples in the training stage and without requiring any prior knowledge or external datasets. Empirically, we find a significant advantage in using auxiliary one-versus-rest binary classifiers, which effectively utilize the generated negative samples and avoid the complex threshold-seeking stage in previous works. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that ANS achieves significant improvements over state-of-the-art methods.

2021

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What Changes Can Large-scale Language Models Bring? Intensive Study on HyperCLOVA: Billions-scale Korean Generative Pretrained Transformers
Boseop Kim | HyoungSeok Kim | Sang-Woo Lee | Gichang Lee | Donghyun Kwak | Jeon Dong Hyeon | Sunghyun Park | Sungju Kim | Seonhoon Kim | Dongpil Seo | Heungsub Lee | Minyoung Jeong | Sungjae Lee | Minsub Kim | Suk Hyun Ko | Seokhun Kim | Taeyong Park | Jinuk Kim | Soyoung Kang | Na-Hyeon Ryu | Kang Min Yoo | Minsuk Chang | Soobin Suh | Sookyo In | Jinseong Park | Kyungduk Kim | Hiun Kim | Jisu Jeong | Yong Goo Yeo | Donghoon Ham | Dongju Park | Min Young Lee | Jaewook Kang | Inho Kang | Jung-Woo Ha | Woomyoung Park | Nako Sung
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

GPT-3 shows remarkable in-context learning ability of large-scale language models (LMs) trained on hundreds of billion scale data. Here we address some remaining issues less reported by the GPT-3 paper, such as a non-English LM, the performances of different sized models, and the effect of recently introduced prompt optimization on in-context learning. To achieve this, we introduce HyperCLOVA, a Korean variant of 82B GPT-3 trained on a Korean-centric corpus of 560B tokens. Enhanced by our Korean-specific tokenization, HyperCLOVA with our training configuration shows state-of-the-art in-context zero-shot and few-shot learning performances on various downstream tasks in Korean. Also, we show the performance benefits of prompt-based learning and demonstrate how it can be integrated into the prompt engineering pipeline. Then we discuss the possibility of materializing the No Code AI paradigm by providing AI prototyping capabilities to non-experts of ML by introducing HyperCLOVA studio, an interactive prompt engineering interface. Lastly, we demonstrate the potential of our methods with three successful in-house applications.

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A Scalable Framework for Learning From Implicit User Feedback to Improve Natural Language Understanding in Large-Scale Conversational AI Systems
Sunghyun Park | Han Li | Ameen Patel | Sidharth Mudgal | Sungjin Lee | Young-Bum Kim | Spyros Matsoukas | Ruhi Sarikaya
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Natural Language Understanding (NLU) is an established component within a conversational AI or digital assistant system, and it is responsible for producing semantic understanding of a user request. We propose a scalable and automatic approach for improving NLU in a large-scale conversational AI system by leveraging implicit user feedback, with an insight that user interaction data and dialog context have rich information embedded from which user satisfaction and intention can be inferred. In particular, we propose a domain-agnostic framework for curating new supervision data for improving NLU from live production traffic. With an extensive set of experiments, we show the results of applying the framework and improving NLU for a large-scale production system across 10 domains.

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Learning Slice-Aware Representations with Mixture of Attentions
Cheng Wang | Sungjin Lee | Sunghyun Park | Han Li | Young-Bum Kim | Ruhi Sarikaya
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Dialogue Response Generation via Contrastive Latent Representation Learning
Shuyang Dai | Guoyin Wang | Sunghyun Park | Sungjin Lee
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Conversational AI

Large-scale auto-regressive models have achieved great success in dialogue response generation, with the help of Transformer layers. However, these models do not learn a representative latent space of the sentence distribution, making it hard to control the generation. Recent works have tried on learning sentence representations using Transformer-based framework, but do not model the context-response relationship embedded in the dialogue datasets. In this work, we aim to construct a robust sentence representation learning model, that is specifically designed for dialogue response generation, with Transformer-based encoder-decoder structure. An utterance-level contrastive learning is proposed, encoding predictive information in each context representation for its corresponding response. Extensive experiments are conducted to verify the robustness of the proposed representation learning mechanism. By using both reference-based and reference-free evaluation metrics, we provide detailed analysis on the generated sentences, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed model.

2019

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Learning with Limited Data for Multilingual Reading Comprehension
Kyungjae Lee | Sunghyun Park | Hojae Han | Jinyoung Yeo | Seung-won Hwang | Juho Lee
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

This paper studies the problem of supporting question answering in a new language with limited training resources. As an extreme scenario, when no such resource exists, one can (1) transfer labels from another language, and (2) generate labels from unlabeled data, using translator and automatic labeling function respectively. However, these approaches inevitably introduce noises to the training data, due to translation or generation errors, which require a judicious use of data with varying confidence. To address this challenge, we propose a weakly-supervised framework that quantifies such noises from automatically generated labels, to deemphasize or fix noisy data in training. On reading comprehension task, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our model on low-resource languages with varying similarity to English, namely, Korean and French.

2018

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Semi-supervised Training Data Generation for Multilingual Question Answering
Kyungjae Lee | Kyoungho Yoon | Sunghyun Park | Seung-won Hwang
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

2014

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Verbal Behaviors and Persuasiveness in Online Multimedia Content
Moitreya Chatterjee | Sunghyun Park | Han Suk Shim | Kenji Sagae | Louis-Philippe Morency
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media (SocialNLP)