Recent studies have determined that the learned token embeddings of large-scale neural language models are degenerated to be anisotropic with a narrow-cone shape. This phenomenon, called the representation degeneration problem, facilitates an increase in the overall similarity between token embeddings that negatively affect the performance of the models. Although the existing methods that address the degeneration problem based on observations of the phenomenon triggered by the problem improves the performance of the text generation, the training dynamics of token embeddings behind the degeneration problem are still not explored. In this study, we analyze the training dynamics of the token embeddings focusing on rare token embedding. We demonstrate that the specific part of the gradient for rare token embeddings is the key cause of the degeneration problem for all tokens during training stage. Based on the analysis, we propose a novel method called, adaptive gradient gating(AGG). AGG addresses the degeneration problem by gating the specific part of the gradient for rare token embeddings. Experimental results from language modeling, word similarity, and machine translation tasks quantitatively and qualitatively verify the effectiveness of AGG.
Non-autoregressive neural machine translation (NART) models suffer from the multi-modality problem which causes translation inconsistency such as token repetition. Most recent approaches have attempted to solve this problem by implicitly modeling dependencies between outputs. In this paper, we introduce AligNART, which leverages full alignment information to explicitly reduce the modality of the target distribution. AligNART divides the machine translation task into (i) alignment estimation and (ii) translation with aligned decoder inputs, guiding the decoder to focus on simplified one-to-one translation. To alleviate the alignment estimation problem, we further propose a novel alignment decomposition method. Our experiments show that AligNART outperforms previous non-iterative NART models that focus on explicit modality reduction on WMT14 En↔De and WMT16 Ro→En. Furthermore, AligNART achieves BLEU scores comparable to those of the state-of-the-art connectionist temporal classification based models on WMT14 En↔De. We also observe that AligNART effectively addresses the token repetition problem even without sequence-level knowledge distillation.
To demystify the “black box” property of deep neural networks for natural language processing (NLP), several methods have been proposed to interpret their predictions by measuring the change in prediction probability after erasing each token of an input. Since existing methods replace each token with a predefined value (i.e., zero), the resulting sentence lies out of the training data distribution, yielding misleading interpretations. In this study, we raise the out-of-distribution problem induced by the existing interpretation methods and present a remedy; we propose to marginalize each token out. We interpret various NLP models trained for sentiment analysis and natural language inference using the proposed method.