Neural Machine Translation (NMT) approaches employing monolingual data are showing steady improvements in resource-rich conditions. However, evaluations using real-world lowresource languages still result in unsatisfactory performance. This work proposes a novel zeroshot NMT modeling approach that learns without the now-standard assumption of a pivot language sharing parallel data with the zero-shot source and target languages. Our approach is based on three stages: initialization from any pre-trained NMT model observing at least the target language, augmentation of source sides leveraging target monolingual data, and learning to optimize the initial model to the zero-shot pair, where the latter two constitute a selflearning cycle. Empirical findings involving four diverse (in terms of a language family, script and relatedness) zero-shot pairs show the effectiveness of our approach with up to +5.93 BLEU improvement against a supervised bilingual baseline. Compared to unsupervised NMT, consistent improvements are observed even in a domain-mismatch setting, attesting to the usability of our method.
Multilingual Neural Machine Translation (MNMT) for low- resource languages (LRL) can be enhanced by the presence of related high-resource languages (HRL), but the relatedness of HRL usually relies on predefined linguistic assumptions about language similarity. Recently, adapting MNMT to a LRL has shown to greatly improve performance. In this work, we explore the problem of adapting an MNMT model to an unseen LRL using data selection and model adapta- tion. In order to improve NMT for LRL, we employ perplexity to select HRL data that are most similar to the LRL on the basis of language distance. We extensively explore data selection in popular multilingual NMT settings, namely in (zero-shot) translation, and in adaptation from a multilingual pre-trained model, for both directions (LRL↔en). We further show that dynamic adaptation of the model’s vocabulary results in a more favourable segmentation for the LRL in comparison with direct adaptation. Experiments show re- ductions in training time and significant performance gains over LRL baselines, even with zero LRL data (+13.0 BLEU), up to +17.0 BLEU for pre-trained multilingual model dynamic adaptation with related data selection. Our method outperforms current approaches, such as massively multilingual models and data augmentation, on four LRL.
We propose a method to transfer knowledge across neural machine translation (NMT) models by means of a shared dynamic vocabulary. Our approach allows to extend an initial model for a given language pair to cover new languages by adapting its vocabulary as long as new data become available (i.e., introducing new vocabulary items if they are not included in the initial model). The parameter transfer mechanism is evaluated in two scenarios: i) to adapt a trained single language NMT system to work with a new language pair and ii) to continuously add new language pairs to grow to a multilingual NMT system. In both the scenarios our goal is to improve the translation performance, while minimizing the training convergence time. Preliminary experiments spanning five languages with different training data sizes (i.e., 5k and 50k parallel sentences) show a significant performance gain ranging from +3.85 up to +13.63 BLEU in different language directions. Moreover, when compared with training an NMT model from scratch, our transfer-learning approach allows us to reach higher performance after training up to 4% of the total training steps.
Multilingual neural machine translation (M-NMT) has recently shown to improve performance of machine translation of low-resource languages. Thanks to its implicit transfer-learning mechanism, the availability of a highly resourced language pair can be leveraged to learn useful representation for a lower resourced language. This work investigates how a low-resource translation task can be improved within a multilingual setting. First, we adapt a system trained on multiple language directions to a specific language pair. Then, we utilize the adapted model to apply an iterative training-inference scheme  using monolingual data. In the experimental setting, an extremely low-resourced Basque-English language pair (i.e., ≈ 5.6K in-domain training data) is our target translation task, where we considered a closely related French/Spanish-English parallel data to build the multilingual model. Experimental results from an i) in-domain and ii) an out-of-domain setting with additional training data, show improvements with our approach. We report a translation performance of 15.89 with the former and 23.99 BLEU with the latter on the official IWSLT 2018 Basque-English test set.
Neural Machine Translation has been shown to enable inference and cross-lingual knowledge transfer across multiple language directions using a single multilingual model. Focusing on this multilingual translation scenario, this work summarizes FBK’s participation in the IWSLT 2017 shared task. Our submissions rely on two multilingual systems trained on five languages (English, Dutch, German, Italian, and Romanian). The first one is a 20 language direction model, which handles all possible combinations of the five languages. The second multilingual system is trained only on 16 directions, leaving the others as zero-shot translation directions (i.e representing a more complex inference task on language pairs not seen at training time). More specifically, our zero-shot directions are Dutch$German and Italian$Romanian (resulting in four language combinations). Despite the small amount of parallel data used for training these systems, the resulting multilingual models are effective, even in comparison with models trained separately for every language pair (i.e. in more favorable conditions). We compare and show the results of the two multilingual models against a baseline single language pair systems. Particularly, we focus on the four zero-shot directions and show how a multilingual model trained with small data can provide reasonable results. Furthermore, we investigate how pivoting (i.e using a bridge/pivot language for inference in a source!pivot!target translations) using a multilingual model can be an alternative to enable zero-shot translation in a low resource setting.
Recent work on multilingual neural machine translation reported competitive performance with respect to bilingual models and surprisingly good performance even on (zero-shot) translation directions not observed at training time. We investigate here a zero-shot translation in a particularly low-resource multilingual setting. We propose a simple iterative training procedure that leverages a duality of translations directly generated by the system for the zero-shot directions. The translations produced by the system (sub-optimal since they contain mixed language from the shared vocabulary), are then used together with the original parallel data to feed and iteratively re-train the multilingual network. Over time, this allows the system to learn from its own generated and increasingly better output. Our approach shows to be effective in improving the two zero-shot directions of our multilingual model. In particular, we observed gains of about 9 BLEU points over a baseline multilingual model and up to 2.08 BLEU over a pivoting mechanism using two bilingual models. Further analysis shows that there is also a slight improvement in the non-zero-shot language directions.