TransLIST: A Transformer-Based Linguistically Informed Sanskrit Tokenizer
Jivnesh Sandhan | Rathin Singha | Narein Rao | Suvendu Samanta | Laxmidhar Behera | Pawan Goyal
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022
Sanskrit Word Segmentation (SWS) is essential in making digitized texts available and in deploying downstream tasks. It is, however, non-trivial because of the sandhi phenomenon that modifies the characters at the word boundaries, and needs special treatment. Existing lexicon driven approaches for SWS make use of Sanskrit Heritage Reader, a lexicon-driven shallow parser, to generate the complete candidate solution space, over which various methods are applied to produce the most valid solution. However, these approaches fail while encountering out-of-vocabulary tokens. On the other hand, purely engineering methods for SWS have made use of recent advances in deep learning, but cannot make use of the latent word information on availability. To mitigate the shortcomings of both families of approaches, we propose Transformer based Linguistically Informed Sanskrit Tokenizer (TransLIST) consisting of (1) a module that encodes the character input along with latent-word information, which takes into account the sandhi phenomenon specific to SWS and is apt to work with partial or no candidate solutions, (2) a novel soft-masked attention to prioritize potential candidate words and (3) a novel path ranking algorithm to rectify the corrupted predictions. Experiments on the benchmark datasets for SWS show that TransLIST outperforms the current state-of-the-art system by an average 7.2 points absolute gain in terms of perfect match (PM) metric.
A Novel Multi-Task Learning Approach for Context-Sensitive Compound Type Identification in Sanskrit
Jivnesh Sandhan | Ashish Gupta | Hrishikesh Terdalkar | Tushar Sandhan | Suvendu Samanta | Laxmidhar Behera | Pawan Goyal
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics
The phenomenon of compounding is ubiquitous in Sanskrit. It serves for achieving brevity in expressing thoughts, while simultaneously enriching the lexical and structural formation of the language. In this work, we focus on the Sanskrit Compound Type Identification (SaCTI) task, where we consider the problem of identifying semantic relations between the components of a compound word. Earlier approaches solely rely on the lexical information obtained from the components and ignore the most crucial contextual and syntactic information useful for SaCTI. However, the SaCTI task is challenging primarily due to the implicitly encoded context-sensitive semantic relation between the compound components. Thus, we propose a novel multi-task learning architecture which incorporates the contextual information and enriches the complementary syntactic information using morphological tagging and dependency parsing as two auxiliary tasks. Experiments on the benchmark datasets for SaCTI show 6.1 points (Accuracy) and 7.7 points (F1-score) absolute gain compared to the state-of-the-art system. Further, our multi-lingual experiments demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed architecture in English and Marathi languages.
- Jivnesh Sandhan 2
- Laxmidhar Behera 2
- Pawan Goyal 2
- Rathin Singha 1
- Narein Rao 1
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