We propose a new approach for learning contextualised cross-lingual word embeddings based on a small parallel corpus (e.g. a few hundred sentence pairs). Our method obtains word embeddings via an LSTM encoder-decoder model that simultaneously translates and reconstructs an input sentence. Through sharing model parameters among different languages, our model jointly trains the word embeddings in a common cross-lingual space. We also propose to combine word and subword embeddings to make use of orthographic similarities across different languages. We base our experiments on real-world data from endangered languages, namely Yongning Na, Shipibo-Konibo, and Griko. Our experiments on bilingual lexicon induction and word alignment tasks show that our model outperforms existing methods by a large margin for most language pairs. These results demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, an encoder-decoder translation model is beneficial for learning cross-lingual representations even in extremely low-resource conditions. Furthermore, our model also works well on high-resource conditions, achieving state-of-the-art performance on a German-English word-alignment task.
We propose a simple method for nominal coordination boundary identification. As the main strength of our method, it can identify the coordination boundaries without training on labeled data, and can be applied even if coordination structure annotations are not available. Our system employs pre-trained word embeddings to measure the similarities of words and detects the span of coordination, assuming that conjuncts share syntactic and semantic similarities. We demonstrate that our method yields good results in identifying coordinated noun phrases in the GENIA corpus and is comparable to a recent supervised method for the case when the coordinator conjoins simple noun phrases.
Recently, a variety of unsupervised methods have been proposed that map pre-trained word embeddings of different languages into the same space without any parallel data. These methods aim to find a linear transformation based on the assumption that monolingual word embeddings are approximately isomorphic between languages. However, it has been demonstrated that this assumption holds true only on specific conditions, and with limited resources, the performance of these methods decreases drastically. To overcome this problem, we propose a new unsupervised multilingual embedding method that does not rely on such assumption and performs well under resource-poor scenarios, namely when only a small amount of monolingual data (i.e., 50k sentences) are available, or when the domains of monolingual data are different across languages. Our proposed model, which we call ‘Multilingual Neural Language Models’, shares some of the network parameters among multiple languages, and encodes sentences of multiple languages into the same space. The model jointly learns word embeddings of different languages in the same space, and generates multilingual embeddings without any parallel data or pre-training. Our experiments on word alignment tasks have demonstrated that, on the low-resource condition, our model substantially outperforms existing unsupervised and even supervised methods trained with 500 bilingual pairs of words. Our model also outperforms unsupervised methods given different-domain corpora across languages. Our code is publicly available.