Takuma Udagawa


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Sentence Identification with BOS and EOS Label Combinations
Takuma Udagawa | Hiroshi Kanayama | Issei Yoshida
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2023

The sentence is a fundamental unit in many NLP applications. Sentence segmentation is widely used as the first preprocessing task, where an input text is split into consecutive sentences considering the end of the sentence (EOS) as their boundaries. This task formulation relies on a strong assumption that the input text consists only of sentences, or what we call the sentential units (SUs). However, real-world texts often contain non-sentential units (NSUs) such as metadata, sentence fragments, nonlinguistic markers, etc. which are unreasonable or undesirable to be treated as a part of an SU. To tackle this issue, we formulate a novel task of sentence identification, where the goal is to identify SUs while excluding NSUs in a given text. To conduct sentence identification, we propose a simple yet effective method which combines the beginning of the sentence (BOS) and EOS labels to determine the most probable SUs and NSUs based on dynamic programming. To evaluate this task, we design an automatic, language-independent procedure to convert the Universal Dependencies corpora into sentence identification benchmarks. Finally, our experiments on the sentence identification task demonstrate that our proposed method generally outperforms sentence segmentation baselines which only utilize EOS labels.


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Maintaining Common Ground in Dynamic Environments
Takuma Udagawa | Akiko Aizawa
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 9

Common grounding is the process of creating and maintaining mutual understandings, which is a critical aspect of sophisticated human communication. While various task settings have been proposed in existing literature, they mostly focus on creating common ground under a static context and ignore the aspect of maintaining them overtime under dynamic context. In this work, we propose a novel task setting to study the ability of both creating and maintaining common ground in dynamic environments. Based on our minimal task formulation, we collected a large-scale dataset of 5,617 dialogues to enable fine-grained evaluation and analysis of various dialogue systems. Through our dataset analyses, we highlight novel challenges introduced in our setting, such as the usage of complex spatio-temporal expressions to create and maintain common ground. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments to assess the capabilities of our baseline dialogue system and discuss future prospects of our research.


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A Linguistic Analysis of Visually Grounded Dialogues Based on Spatial Expressions
Takuma Udagawa | Takato Yamazaki | Akiko Aizawa
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Recent models achieve promising results in visually grounded dialogues. However, existing datasets often contain undesirable biases and lack sophisticated linguistic analyses, which make it difficult to understand how well current models recognize their precise linguistic structures. To address this problem, we make two design choices: first, we focus on OneCommon Corpus (CITATION), a simple yet challenging common grounding dataset which contains minimal bias by design. Second, we analyze their linguistic structures based on spatial expressions and provide comprehensive and reliable annotation for 600 dialogues. We show that our annotation captures important linguistic structures including predicate-argument structure, modification and ellipsis. In our experiments, we assess the model’s understanding of these structures through reference resolution. We demonstrate that our annotation can reveal both the strengths and weaknesses of baseline models in essential levels of detail. Overall, we propose a novel framework and resource for investigating fine-grained language understanding in visually grounded dialogues.