Tanay Dixit


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IndicMT Eval: A Dataset to Meta-Evaluate Machine Translation Metrics for Indian Languages
Ananya Sai B | Tanay Dixit | Vignesh Nagarajan | Anoop Kunchukuttan | Pratyush Kumar | Mitesh M. Khapra | Raj Dabre
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The rapid growth of machine translation (MT) systems necessitates meta-evaluations of evaluation metrics to enable selection of those that best reflect MT quality. Unfortunately, most meta-evaluation studies focus on European languages, the observations for which may not always apply to other languages. Indian languages, having over a billion speakers, are linguistically different from them, and to date, there are no such systematic studies focused solely on English to Indian language MT. This paper fills this gap through a Multidimensional Quality Metric (MQM) dataset consisting of 7000 fine-grained annotations, spanning 5 Indian languages and 7 MT systems. We evaluate 16 metrics and show that, pre-trained metrics like COMET have the highest correlations with annotator scores as opposed to n-gram metrics like BLEU. We further leverage our MQM annotations to develop an Indic-COMET metric and show that it outperforms COMET counterparts in both human scores correlations and robustness scores in Indian languages. Additionally, we show that the Indic-COMET can outperform COMET on some unseen Indian languages. We hope that our dataset and analysis will facilitate further research in Indic MT evaluation.

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Improving Factuality of Abstractive Summarization without Sacrificing Summary Quality
Tanay Dixit | Fei Wang | Muhao Chen
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Improving factual consistency of abstractive summarization has been a widely studied topic. However, most of the prior works on training factuality-aware models have ignored the negative effect it has on summary quality. We propose {pasted macro ‘MODEL’}name (i.e. Effective Factual Summarization), a candidate summary generation and ranking technique to improve summary factuality without sacrificing quality. We show that using a contrastive learning framework with our refined candidate summaries leads to significant gains on both factuality and similarity-based metrics. Specifically, we propose a ranking strategy in which we effectively combine two metrics, thereby preventing any conflict during training. Models trained using our approach show up to 6 points of absolute improvement over the base model with respect to FactCC on XSUM and 11 points on CNN/DM, without negatively affecting either similarity-based metrics or absractiveness.


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Super-NaturalInstructions: Generalization via Declarative Instructions on 1600+ NLP Tasks
Yizhong Wang | Swaroop Mishra | Pegah Alipoormolabashi | Yeganeh Kordi | Amirreza Mirzaei | Atharva Naik | Arjun Ashok | Arut Selvan Dhanasekaran | Anjana Arunkumar | David Stap | Eshaan Pathak | Giannis Karamanolakis | Haizhi Lai | Ishan Purohit | Ishani Mondal | Jacob Anderson | Kirby Kuznia | Krima Doshi | Kuntal Kumar Pal | Maitreya Patel | Mehrad Moradshahi | Mihir Parmar | Mirali Purohit | Neeraj Varshney | Phani Rohitha Kaza | Pulkit Verma | Ravsehaj Singh Puri | Rushang Karia | Savan Doshi | Shailaja Keyur Sampat | Siddhartha Mishra | Sujan Reddy A | Sumanta Patro | Tanay Dixit | Xudong Shen
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

How well can NLP models generalize to a variety of unseen tasks when provided with task instructions? To address this question, we first introduce Super-NaturalInstructions, a benchmark of 1,616 diverse NLP tasks and their expert-written instructions. Our collection covers 76 distinct task types, including but not limited to classification, extraction, infilling, sequence tagging, text rewriting, and text composition. This large and diverse collection of tasks enables rigorous benchmarking of cross-task generalization under instructions—training models to follow instructions on a subset of tasks and evaluating them on the remaining unseen ones. Furthermore, we build Tk-Instruct, a transformer model trained to follow a variety of in-context instructions (plain language task definitions or k-shot examples). Our experiments show that Tk-Instruct outperforms existing instruction-following models such as InstructGPT by over 9% on our benchmark despite being an order of magnitude smaller. We further analyze generalization as a function of various scaling parameters, such as the number of observed tasks, the number of instances per task, and model sizes. We hope our dataset and model facilitate future progress towards more general-purpose NLP models.

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CORE: A Retrieve-then-Edit Framework for Counterfactual Data Generation
Tanay Dixit | Bhargavi Paranjape | Hannaneh Hajishirzi | Luke Zettlemoyer
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Counterfactual data augmentation (CDA) – i.e., adding minimally perturbed inputs during training – helps reduce model reliance on spurious correlations and improves generalization to out-of-distribution (OOD) data. Prior work on generating counterfactuals only considered restricted classes of perturbations, limiting their effectiveness. We present Counterfactual Generation via Retrieval and Editing (CORE), a retrieval-augmented generation framework for creating diverse counterfactual perturbations for CDA. For each training example, CORE first performs a dense retrieval over a task-related unlabeled text corpus using a learned bi-encoder and extracts relevant counterfactual excerpts. CORE then incorporates these into prompts to a large language model with few-shot learning capabilities, for counterfactual editing. Conditioning language model edits on naturally occurring data results in more diverse perturbations. Experiments on natural language inference and sentiment analysis benchmarks show that CORE counterfactuals are more effective at improving generalization to OOD data compared to other DA approaches. We also show that the CORE retrieval framework can be used to encourage diversity in manually authored perturbations.


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Perturbation CheckLists for Evaluating NLG Evaluation Metrics
Ananya B. Sai | Tanay Dixit | Dev Yashpal Sheth | Sreyas Mohan | Mitesh M. Khapra
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Natural Language Generation (NLG) evaluation is a multifaceted task requiring assessment of multiple desirable criteria, e.g., fluency, coherency, coverage, relevance, adequacy, overall quality, etc. Across existing datasets for 6 NLG tasks, we observe that the human evaluation scores on these multiple criteria are often not correlated. For example, there is a very low correlation between human scores on fluency and data coverage for the task of structured data to text generation. This suggests that the current recipe of proposing new automatic evaluation metrics for NLG by showing that they correlate well with scores assigned by humans for a single criteria (overall quality) alone is inadequate. Indeed, our extensive study involving 25 automatic evaluation metrics across 6 different tasks and 18 different evaluation criteria shows that there is no single metric which correlates well with human scores on all desirable criteria, for most NLG tasks. Given this situation, we propose CheckLists for better design and evaluation of automatic metrics. We design templates which target a specific criteria (e.g., coverage) and perturb the output such that the quality gets affected only along this specific criteria (e.g., the coverage drops). We show that existing evaluation metrics are not robust against even such simple perturbations and disagree with scores assigned by humans to the perturbed output. The proposed templates thus allow for a fine-grained assessment of automatic evaluation metrics exposing their limitations and will facilitate better design, analysis and evaluation of such metrics. Our templates and code are available at https://iitmnlp.github.io/EvalEval/