Tanja Bergmann


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Pooled Contextualized Embeddings for Named Entity Recognition
Alan Akbik | Tanja Bergmann | Roland Vollgraf
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Contextual string embeddings are a recent type of contextualized word embedding that were shown to yield state-of-the-art results when utilized in a range of sequence labeling tasks. They are based on character-level language models which treat text as distributions over characters and are capable of generating embeddings for any string of characters within any textual context. However, such purely character-based approaches struggle to produce meaningful embeddings if a rare string is used in a underspecified context. To address this drawback, we propose a method in which we dynamically aggregate contextualized embeddings of each unique string that we encounter. We then use a pooling operation to distill a ”global” word representation from all contextualized instances. We evaluate these ”pooled contextualized embeddings” on common named entity recognition (NER) tasks such as CoNLL-03 and WNUT and show that our approach significantly improves the state-of-the-art for NER. We make all code and pre-trained models available to the research community for use and reproduction.

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FLAIR: An Easy-to-Use Framework for State-of-the-Art NLP
Alan Akbik | Tanja Bergmann | Duncan Blythe | Kashif Rasul | Stefan Schweter | Roland Vollgraf
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Demonstrations)

We present FLAIR, an NLP framework designed to facilitate training and distribution of state-of-the-art sequence labeling, text classification and language models. The core idea of the framework is to present a simple, unified interface for conceptually very different types of word and document embeddings. This effectively hides all embedding-specific engineering complexity and allows researchers to “mix and match” various embeddings with little effort. The framework also implements standard model training and hyperparameter selection routines, as well as a data fetching module that can download publicly available NLP datasets and convert them into data structures for quick set up of experiments. Finally, FLAIR also ships with a “model zoo” of pre-trained models to allow researchers to use state-of-the-art NLP models in their applications. This paper gives an overview of the framework and its functionality. The framework is available on GitHub at https://github.com/zalandoresearch/flair .