Tanmay Rajpurohit


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QualEval: Qualitative Evaluation for Model Improvement
Vishvak Murahari | Ameet Deshpande | Peter Clark | Tanmay Rajpurohit | Ashish Sabharwal | Karthik Narasimhan | Ashwin Kalyan
Proceedings of the 2024 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Quantitative evaluation metrics have been pivotal in gauging the advancements of AI systems like large language models (LLMs).However, due to the intricate nature of real-world tasks, a single scalar to quantify and compare performance trivializes the fine-grained nuances of model behavior. Additionally, metrics do not yield actionable diagnostics for model improvement, thus requiring extensive manual efforts of scientists, involving sifting through vast datasets and attempting hit-or-miss adjustments to training data or setups. In this work, we address the shortcomings of quantitative metrics by proposing QualEval, which uses automated qualitative evaluation as a vehicle for model improvement. QualEval uses a powerful LLM reasoner and our novel flexible linear programming solver to generate human-readable insights that when applied, accelerate model improvement. The insights are supported by a dashboard report with fine-grained visualizations and human-interpretable analyses. We corroborate the faithfulness of QualEval by demonstrating that leveraging its insights, for example, improves the absolute performance of the Llama 2 model by up to 15% points relative on a challenging dialogue task (DialogSum) when compared to baselines. QualEval successfully increases the pace and quality of model development by eliminating the need of arduous manual analysis, thus serving as a data-scientist-in-a-box.


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Toxicity in chatgpt: Analyzing persona-assigned language models
Ameet Deshpande | Vishvak Murahari | Tanmay Rajpurohit | Ashwin Kalyan | Karthik Narasimhan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Large language models (LLMs) have shown incredible capabilities and transcended the natural language processing (NLP) community, with adoption throughout many services like healthcare, therapy, education, and customer service. Since users include people with critical information needs like students or patients engaging with chatbots, the safety of these systems is of prime importance. Legislation has recognized its significance and recently drafted a “Blueprint For An AI Bill Of Rights” which calls for domain experts to identify risks and potential impact of AI systems. To this end, we systematically evaluate toxicity in over half a million generations of ChatGPT, a popular dialogue-based LLM. We find that setting the system parameter of ChatGPT by assigning it a persona, say that of the boxer Muhammad Ali, significantly increases the toxicity of generations. Depending on the persona assigned to ChatGPT, its toxicity can increase up to , with outputs engaging in incorrect stereotypes, harmful dialogue, and hurtful opinions. Furthermore, we find concerning patterns where specific entities (e.g., certain races) are targeted more than others ( more) irrespective of the assigned persona, reflecting discriminatory biases in the model. Our findings show that multiple provisions in the legislative blueprint are being violated, and we hope that the broader AI community rethinks the efficacy of current safety guardrails and develops better techniques that lead to robust, safe, and trustworthy AI.

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C-STS: Conditional Semantic Textual Similarity
Ameet Deshpande | Carlos Jimenez | Howard Chen | Vishvak Murahari | Victoria Graf | Tanmay Rajpurohit | Ashwin Kalyan | Danqi Chen | Karthik Narasimhan
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Semantic textual similarity (STS) has been a cornerstone task in NLP that measures the degree of similarity between a pair of sentences, with applications in information retrieval, question answering, and embedding methods. However, it is an inherently ambiguous task, with the sentence similarity depending on the specific aspect of interest. We resolve this ambiguity by proposing a novel task called conditional STS (C-STS) which measures similarity conditioned on an aspect elucidated in natural language (hereon, condition). As an example, the similarity between the sentences “The NBA player shoots a three-pointer.” and “A man throws a tennis ball into the air to serve.” is higher for the condition “The motion of the ball.” (both upward) and lower for “The size of the ball.” (one large and one small). C-STS’s advantages are two-fold: (1) it reduces the subjectivity and ambiguity of STS, and (2) enables fine-grained similarity evaluation using diverse conditions. C-STS contains almost 20,000 instances from diverse domains and we evaluate several state-of-the-art models to demonstrate that even the most performant fine-tuning and in-context learning models (GPT-4, Flan, SimCSE) find it challenging, with Spearman correlation scores of <50. We encourage the community to evaluate their models on C-STS to provide a more holistic view of semantic similarity and natural language understanding.

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Let GPT be a Math Tutor: Teaching Math Word Problem Solvers with Customized Exercise Generation
Zhenwen Liang | Wenhao Yu | Tanmay Rajpurohit | Peter Clark | Xiangliang Zhang | Ashwin Kalyan
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this paper, we present a novel approach for distilling math word problem solving capabilities from large language models (LLMs) into smaller, more efficient student models. Our approach is designed to consider the student model’s weaknesses and foster a tailored learning experience by generating targeted exercises aligned with educational science principles, such as knowledge tracing and personalized learning. Concretely, we let GPT-3 be a math tutor and run two steps iteratively: 1) assessing the student model’s current learning status on a GPT-generated exercise book, and 2) improving the student model by training it with tailored exercise samples generated by GPT-3. Experimental results reveal that our approach outperforms LLMs (e.g., GPT-3 and PaLM) in accuracy across three distinct benchmarks while employing significantly fewer parameters. Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the various components within our methodology to substantiate their efficacy.

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Anthropomorphization of AI: Opportunities and Risks
Ameet Deshpande | Tanmay Rajpurohit | Karthik Narasimhan | Ashwin Kalyan
Proceedings of the Natural Legal Language Processing Workshop 2023

Anthropomorphization is the tendency to attribute human-like traits to non-human entities. It is prevalent in many social contexts – children anthropomorphize toys, adults do so with brands, and it is a literary device. It is also a versatile tool in science, with behavioral psychology and evolutionary biology meticulously documenting its consequences. With widespread adoption of AI systems, and the push from stakeholders to make it human-like through alignment techniques, human voice, and pictorial avatars, the tendency for users to anthropomorphize it increases significantly. We take a dyadic approach to understanding this phenomenon with large language models (LLMs) by studying (1) the objective legal implications, as analyzed through the lens of the recent blueprint of AI bill of rights and the (2) subtle psychological aspects customization and anthropomorphization. We find that anthropomorphized LLMs customized for different user bases violate multiple provisions in the legislative blueprint. In addition, we point out that anthropomorphization of LLMs affects the influence they can have on their users, thus having the potential to fundamentally change the nature of human-AI interaction, with potential for manipulation and negative influence. With LLMs being hyper-personalized for vulnerable groups like children and patients among others, our work is a timely and important contribution. We propose a conservative strategy for the cautious use of anthropomorphization to improve trustworthiness of AI systems.


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LILA: A Unified Benchmark for Mathematical Reasoning
Swaroop Mishra | Matthew Finlayson | Pan Lu | Leonard Tang | Sean Welleck | Chitta Baral | Tanmay Rajpurohit | Oyvind Tafjord | Ashish Sabharwal | Peter Clark | Ashwin Kalyan
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Mathematical reasoning skills are essential for general-purpose intelligentsystems to perform tasks from grocery shopping to climate modeling.Towards evaluating and improving AI systems in this domain, we proposeLILA, a unified mathematical reasoning benchmark consisting of 23 diversetasks along four dimensions:(i) mathematical abilities e.g., arithmetic, calculus (ii) language format e.g., question-answering, fill-in-the-blanks (iii) language diversity e.g., no language, simple language (iv) external knowledge e.g., commonsense, physics. We construct our benchmark by extending 20 datasets benchmark by collecting task instructions and solutions in the form of Python programs,thereby obtaining explainable solutions in addition to the correct answer.We additionally introduce two evaluation datasets to measure out-of-distribution performance and robustness to language perturbation.Finally, we introduce BHASKARA,a general-purpose mathematical reasoning model trained on LILA. Importantly, we find that multi-tasking leads to significant improvements (average relative improvement of 21.83% F1 score vs. single-task models),while the best performing model only obtains 60.40%,indicating the room for improvement in general mathematical reasoning and understanding.