Adapting word order from one language to another is a key problem in cross-lingual structured prediction. Current sentence encoders (e.g., RNN, Transformer with position embeddings) are usually word order sensitive. Even with uniform word form representations (MUSE, mBERT), word order discrepancies may hurt the adaptation of models. In this paper, we build structured prediction models with bag-of-words inputs, and introduce a new reordering module to organizing words following the source language order, which learns task-specific reordering strategies from a general-purpose order predictor model. Experiments on zero-shot cross-lingual dependency parsing, POS tagging, and morphological tagging show that our model can significantly improve target language performances, especially for languages that are distant from the source language.
Transition systems usually contain various dynamic structures (e.g., stacks, buffers). An ideal transition-based model should encode these structures completely and efficiently. Previous works relying on templates or neural network structures either only encode partial structure information or suffer from computation efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel attention-based encoder unifying representation of all structures in a transition system. Specifically, we separate two views of items on structures, namely structure-invariant view and structure-dependent view. With the help of parallel-friendly attention network, we are able to encoding transition states with O(1) additional complexity (with respect to basic feature extractors). Experiments on the PTB and UD show that our proposed method significantly improves the test speed and achieves the best transition-based model, and is comparable to state-of-the-art methods.
We investigate the problem of efficiently incorporating high-order features into neural graph-based dependency parsing. Instead of explicitly extracting high-order features from intermediate parse trees, we develop a more powerful dependency tree node representation which captures high-order information concisely and efficiently. We use graph neural networks (GNNs) to learn the representations and discuss several new configurations of GNN’s updating and aggregation functions. Experiments on PTB show that our parser achieves the best UAS and LAS on PTB (96.0%, 94.3%) among systems without using any external resources.
We describe the graph-based dependency parser in our system (AntNLP) submitted to the CoNLL 2018 UD Shared Task. We use bidirectional lstm to get the word representation, then a bi-affine pointer networks to compute scores of candidate dependency edges and the MST algorithm to get the final dependency tree. From the official testing results, our system gets 70.90 LAS F1 score (rank 9/26), 55.92 MLAS (10/26) and 60.91 BLEX (8/26).
We present a multilingual dependency parser with a bidirectional-LSTM (BiLSTM) feature extractor and a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) classifier. We trained our transition-based projective parser in UD version 2.0 datasets without any additional data. The parser is fast, lightweight and effective on big treebanks. In the CoNLL 2017 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies, the official results show that the macro-averaged LAS F1 score of our system Mengest is 61.33%.