Tao Yang


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Improving Chinese Grammatical Error Detection via Data augmentation by Conditional Error Generation
Tianchi Yue | Shulin Liu | Huihui Cai | Tao Yang | Shengkang Song | TingHao Yu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Chinese Grammatical Error Detection(CGED) aims at detecting grammatical errors in Chinese texts. One of the main challenges for CGED is the lack of annotated data. To alleviate this problem, previous studies proposed various methods to automatically generate more training samples, which can be roughly categorized into rule-based methods and model-based methods. The rule-based methods construct erroneous sentences by directly introducing noises into original sentences. However, the introduced noises are usually context-independent, which are quite different from those made by humans. The model-based methods utilize generative models to imitate human errors. The generative model may bring too many changes to the original sentences and generate semantically ambiguous sentences, so it is difficult to detect grammatical errors in these generated sentences. In addition, generated sentences may be error-free and thus become noisy data. To handle these problems, we propose CNEG, a novel Conditional Non-Autoregressive Error Generation model for generating Chinese grammatical errors. Specifically, in order to generate a context-dependent error, we first mask a span in a correct text, then predict an erroneous span conditioned on both the masked text and the correct span. Furthermore, we filter out error-free spans by measuring their perplexities in the original sentences. Experimental results show that our proposed method achieves better performance than all compared data augmentation methods on the CGED-2018 and CGED-2020 benchmarks.

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CRASpell: A Contextual Typo Robust Approach to Improve Chinese Spelling Correction
Shulin Liu | Shengkang Song | Tianchi Yue | Tao Yang | Huihui Cai | TingHao Yu | Shengli Sun
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Recently, Bert-based models have dominated the research of Chinese spelling correction (CSC). These methods have two limitations: (1) they have poor performance on multi-typo texts. In such texts, the context of each typo contains at least one misspelled character, which brings noise information. Such noisy context leads to the declining performance on multi-typo texts. (2) they tend to overcorrect valid expressions to more frequent expressions due to the masked token recovering task of Bert. We attempt to address these limitations in this paper. To make our model robust to contextual noise brought by typos, our approach first constructs a noisy context for each training sample. Then the correction model is forced to yield similar outputs based on the noisy and original contexts. Moreover, to address the overcorrection problem, copy mechanism is incorporated to encourage our model to prefer to choose the input character when the miscorrected and input character are both valid according to the given context. Experiments are conducted on widely used benchmarks. Our model achieves superior performance against state-of-the-art methods by a remarkable gain.

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Compact Token Representations with Contextual Quantization for Efficient Document Re-ranking
Yingrui Yang | Yifan Qiao | Tao Yang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Transformer based re-ranking models can achieve high search relevance through context- aware soft matching of query tokens with document tokens. To alleviate runtime complexity of such inference, previous work has adopted a late interaction architecture with pre-computed contextual token representations at the cost of a large online storage. This paper proposes contextual quantization of token embeddings by decoupling document-specific and document-independent ranking contributions during codebook-based compression. This allows effective online decompression and embedding composition for better search relevance. This paper presents an evaluation of the above compact token representation model in terms of relevance and space efficiency.


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Multiplex Graph Neural Network for Extractive Text Summarization
Baoyu Jing | Zeyu You | Tao Yang | Wei Fan | Hanghang Tong
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Extractive text summarization aims at extracting the most representative sentences from a given document as its summary. To extract a good summary from a long text document, sentence embedding plays an important role. Recent studies have leveraged graph neural networks to capture the inter-sentential relationship (e.g., the discourse graph) within the documents to learn contextual sentence embedding. However, those approaches neither consider multiple types of inter-sentential relationships (e.g., semantic similarity and natural connection relationships), nor model intra-sentential relationships (e.g, semantic similarity and syntactic relationship among words). To address these problems, we propose a novel Multiplex Graph Convolutional Network (Multi-GCN) to jointly model different types of relationships among sentences and words. Based on Multi-GCN, we propose a Multiplex Graph Summarization (Multi-GraS) model for extractive text summarization. Finally, we evaluate the proposed models on the CNN/DailyMail benchmark dataset to demonstrate effectiveness of our method.

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Learning to Answer Psychological Questionnaire for Personality Detection
Feifan Yang | Tao Yang | Xiaojun Quan | Qinliang Su
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Existing text-based personality detection research mostly relies on data-driven approaches to implicitly capture personality cues in online posts, lacking the guidance of psychological knowledge. Psychological questionnaire, which contains a series of dedicated questions highly related to personality traits, plays a critical role in self-report personality assessment. We argue that the posts created by a user contain critical contents that could help answer the questions in a questionnaire, resulting in an assessment of his personality by linking the texts and the questionnaire. To this end, we propose a new model named Psychological Questionnaire enhanced Network (PQ-Net) to guide personality detection by tracking critical information in texts with a questionnaire. Specifically, PQ-Net contains two streams: a context stream to encode each piece of text into a contextual text representation, and a questionnaire stream to capture relevant information in the contextual text representation to generate potential answer representations for a questionnaire. The potential answer representations are used to enhance the contextual text representation and to benefit personality prediction. Experimental results on two datasets demonstrate the superiority of PQ-Net in capturing useful cues from the posts for personality detection.

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KLMo: Knowledge Graph Enhanced Pretrained Language Model with Fine-Grained Relationships
Lei He | Suncong Zheng | Tao Yang | Feng Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Interactions between entities in knowledge graph (KG) provide rich knowledge for language representation learning. However, existing knowledge-enhanced pretrained language models (PLMs) only focus on entity information and ignore the fine-grained relationships between entities. In this work, we propose to incorporate KG (including both entities and relations) into the language learning process to obtain KG-enhanced pretrained Language Model, namely KLMo. Specifically, a novel knowledge aggregator is designed to explicitly model the interaction between entity spans in text and all entities and relations in a contextual KG. An relation prediction objective is utilized to incorporate relation information by distant supervision. An entity linking objective is further utilized to link entity spans in text to entities in KG. In this way, the structured knowledge can be effectively integrated into language representations. Experimental results demonstrate that KLMo achieves great improvements on several knowledge-driven tasks, such as entity typing and relation classification, comparing with the state-of-the-art knowledge-enhanced PLMs.

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PLOME: Pre-training with Misspelled Knowledge for Chinese Spelling Correction
Shulin Liu | Tao Yang | Tianchi Yue | Feng Zhang | Di Wang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Chinese spelling correction (CSC) is a task to detect and correct spelling errors in texts. CSC is essentially a linguistic problem, thus the ability of language understanding is crucial to this task. In this paper, we propose a Pre-trained masked Language model with Misspelled knowledgE (PLOME) for CSC, which jointly learns how to understand language and correct spelling errors. To this end, PLOME masks the chosen tokens with similar characters according to a confusion set rather than the fixed token “[MASK]” as in BERT. Besides character prediction, PLOME also introduces pronunciation prediction to learn the misspelled knowledge on phonic level. Moreover, phonological and visual similarity knowledge is important to this task. PLOME utilizes GRU networks to model such knowledge based on characters’ phonics and strokes. Experiments are conducted on widely used benchmarks. Our method achieves superior performance against state-of-the-art approaches by a remarkable margin. We release the source code and pre-trained model for further use by the community (https://github.com/liushulinle/PLOME).

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Psycholinguistic Tripartite Graph Network for Personality Detection
Tao Yang | Feifan Yang | Haolan Ouyang | Xiaojun Quan
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Most of the recent work on personality detection from online posts adopts multifarious deep neural networks to represent the posts and builds predictive models in a data-driven manner, without the exploitation of psycholinguistic knowledge that may unveil the connections between one’s language use and his psychological traits. In this paper, we propose a psycholinguistic knowledge-based tripartite graph network, TrigNet, which consists of a tripartite graph network and a BERT-based graph initializer. The graph network injects structural psycholinguistic knowledge in LIWC, a computerized instrument for psycholinguistic analysis, by constructing a heterogeneous tripartite graph. The initializer is employed to provide initial embeddings for the graph nodes. To reduce the computational cost in graph learning, we further propose a novel flow graph attention network (GAT) that only transmits messages between neighboring parties in the tripartite graph. Benefiting from the tripartite graph, TrigNet can aggregate post information from a psychological perspective, which is a novel way of exploiting domain knowledge. Extensive experiments on two datasets show that TrigNet outperforms the existing state-of-art model by 3.47 and 2.10 points in average F1. Moreover, the flow GAT reduces the FLOPS and Memory measures by 38% and 32%, respectively, in comparison to the original GAT in our setting.

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TexSmart: A System for Enhanced Natural Language Understanding
Lemao Liu | Haisong Zhang | Haiyun Jiang | Yangming Li | Enbo Zhao | Kun Xu | Linfeng Song | Suncong Zheng | Botong Zhou | Dick Zhu | Xiao Feng | Tao Chen | Tao Yang | Dong Yu | Feng Zhang | ZhanHui Kang | Shuming Shi
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

This paper introduces TexSmart, a text understanding system that supports fine-grained named entity recognition (NER) and enhanced semantic analysis functionalities. Compared to most previous publicly available text understanding systems and tools, TexSmart holds some unique features. First, the NER function of TexSmart supports over 1,000 entity types, while most other public tools typically support several to (at most) dozens of entity types. Second, TexSmart introduces new semantic analysis functions like semantic expansion and deep semantic representation, that are absent in most previous systems. Third, a spectrum of algorithms (from very fast algorithms to those that are relatively slow but more accurate) are implemented for one function in TexSmart, to fulfill the requirements of different academic and industrial applications. The adoption of unsupervised or weakly-supervised algorithms is especially emphasized, with the goal of easily updating our models to include fresh data with less human annotation efforts.


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Commonsense Evidence Generation and Injection in Reading Comprehension
Ye Liu | Tao Yang | Zeyu You | Wei Fan | Philip S. Yu
Proceedings of the 21th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue

Human tackle reading comprehension not only based on the given context itself but often rely on the commonsense beyond. To empower the machine with commonsense reasoning, in this paper, we propose a Commonsense Evidence Generation and Injection framework in reading comprehension, named CEGI. The framework injects two kinds of auxiliary commonsense evidence into comprehensive reading to equip the machine with the ability of rational thinking. Specifically, we build two evidence generators: one aims to generate textual evidence via a language model; the other aims to extract factual evidence (automatically aligned text-triples) from a commonsense knowledge graph after graph completion. Those evidences incorporate contextual commonsense and serve as the additional inputs to the reasoning model. Thereafter, we propose a deep contextual encoder to extract semantic relationships among the paragraph, question, option, and evidence. Finally, we employ a capsule network to extract different linguistic units (word and phrase) from the relations, and dynamically predict the optimal option based on the extracted units. Experiments on the CosmosQA dataset demonstrate that the proposed CEGI model outperforms the current state-of-the-art approaches and achieves the highest accuracy (83.6%) on the leaderboard.


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Event Detection without Triggers
Shulin Liu | Yang Li | Feng Zhang | Tao Yang | Xinpeng Zhou
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

The goal of event detection (ED) is to detect the occurrences of events and categorize them. Previous work solved this task by recognizing and classifying event triggers, which is defined as the word or phrase that most clearly expresses an event occurrence. As a consequence, existing approaches required both annotated triggers and event types in training data. However, triggers are nonessential to event detection, and it is time-consuming for annotators to pick out the “most clearly” word from a given sentence, especially from a long sentence. The expensive annotation of training corpus limits the application of existing approaches. To reduce manual effort, we explore detecting events without triggers. In this work, we propose a novel framework dubbed as Type-aware Bias Neural Network with Attention Mechanisms (TBNNAM), which encodes the representation of a sentence based on target event types. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness. Remarkably, the proposed approach even achieves competitive performances compared with state-of-the-arts that used annotated triggers.

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Multi-grained Named Entity Recognition
Congying Xia | Chenwei Zhang | Tao Yang | Yaliang Li | Nan Du | Xian Wu | Wei Fan | Fenglong Ma | Philip Yu
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

This paper presents a novel framework, MGNER, for Multi-Grained Named Entity Recognition where multiple entities or entity mentions in a sentence could be non-overlapping or totally nested. Different from traditional approaches regarding NER as a sequential labeling task and annotate entities consecutively, MGNER detects and recognizes entities on multiple granularities: it is able to recognize named entities without explicitly assuming non-overlapping or totally nested structures. MGNER consists of a Detector that examines all possible word segments and a Classifier that categorizes entities. In addition, contextual information and a self-attention mechanism are utilized throughout the framework to improve the NER performance. Experimental results show that MGNER outperforms current state-of-the-art baselines up to 4.4% in terms of the F1 score among nested/non-overlapping NER tasks.