Tao Zhang


pdf bib
Enhancing Cross-lingual Transfer via Phonemic Transcription Integration
Hoang Nguyen | Chenwei Zhang | Tao Zhang | Eugene Rohrbaugh | Philip Yu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Previous cross-lingual transfer methods are restricted to orthographic representation learning via textual scripts. This limitation hampers cross-lingual transfer and is biased towards languages sharing similar well-known scripts. To alleviate the gap between languages from different writing scripts, we propose PhoneXL, a framework incorporating phonemic transcriptions as an additional linguistic modality beyond the traditional orthographic transcriptions for cross-lingual transfer. Particularly, we propose unsupervised alignment objectives to capture (1) local one-to-one alignment between the two different modalities, (2) alignment via multi-modality contexts to leverage information from additional modalities, and (3) alignment via multilingual contexts where additional bilingual dictionaries are incorporated. We also release the first phonemic-orthographic alignment dataset on two token-level tasks (Named Entity Recognition and Part-of-Speech Tagging) among the understudied but interconnected Chinese-Japanese-Korean-Vietnamese (CJKV) languages. Our pilot study reveals phonemic transcription provides essential information beyond the orthography to enhance cross-lingual transfer and bridge the gap among CJKV languages, leading to consistent improvements on cross-lingual token-level tasks over orthographic-based multilingual PLMs.

pdf bib
Sparse Frame Grouping Network with Action Centered for Untrimmed Video Paragraph Captioning
Guorui Yu | Yimin Hu | Yuejie Zhang | Rui Feng | Tao Zhang | Shang Gao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Generating paragraph captions for untrimmed videos without event annotations is challenging, especially when aiming to enhance precision and minimize repetition at the same time. To address this challenge, we propose a module called Sparse Frame Grouping (SFG). It dynamically groups event information with the help of action information for the entire video and excludes redundant frames within pre-defined clips. To enhance the performance, an Intra Contrastive Learning technique is designed to align the SFG module with the core event content in the paragraph, and an Inter Contrastive Learning technique is employed to learn action-guided context with reduced static noise simultaneously. Extensive experiments are conducted on two benchmark datasets (ActivityNet Captions and YouCook2). Results demonstrate that SFG outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on all metrics.

pdf bib
CoF-CoT: Enhancing Large Language Models with Coarse-to-Fine Chain-of-Thought Prompting for Multi-domain NLU Tasks
Hoang Nguyen | Ye Liu | Chenwei Zhang | Tao Zhang | Philip Yu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

While Chain-of-Thought prompting is popular in reasoning tasks, its application to Large Language Models (LLMs) in Natural Language Understanding (NLU) is under-explored. Motivated by multi-step reasoning of LLMs, we propose Coarse-to-Fine Chain-of-Thought (CoF-CoT) approach that breaks down NLU tasks into multiple reasoning steps where LLMs can learn to acquire and leverage essential concepts to solve tasks from different granularities. Moreover, we propose leveraging semantic-based Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) structured knowledge as an intermediate step to capture the nuances and diverse structures of utterances, and to understand connections between their varying levels of granularity. Our proposed approach is demonstrated effective in assisting the LLMs adapt to the multi-grained NLU tasks under both zero-shot and few-shot multi-domain settings.


pdf bib
ActPerFL: Active Personalized Federated Learning
Huili Chen | Jie Ding | Eric Tramel | Shuang Wu | Anit Kumar Sahu | Salman Avestimehr | Tao Zhang
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Federated Learning for Natural Language Processing (FL4NLP 2022)

In the context of personalized federated learning (FL), the critical challenge is to balance local model improvement and global model tuning when the personal and global objectives may not be exactly aligned. Inspired by Bayesian hierarchical models, we develop ActPerFL, a self-aware personalized FL method where each client can automatically balance the training of its local personal model and the global model that implicitly contributes to other clients’ training. Such a balance is derived from the inter-client and intra-client uncertainty quantification. Consequently, ActPerFL can adapt to the underlying clients’ heterogeneity with uncertainty-driven local training and model aggregation. With experimental studies on Sent140 and Amazon Alexa audio data, we show that ActPerFL can achieve superior personalization performance compared with the existing counterparts.

pdf bib
A Unified Positive-Unlabeled Learning Framework for Document-Level Relation Extraction with Different Levels of Labeling
Ye Wang | Xinxin Liu | Wenxin Hu | Tao Zhang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Document-level relation extraction (RE) aims to identify relations between entities across multiple sentences. Most previous methods focused on document-level RE under full supervision. However, in real-world scenario, it is expensive and difficult to completely label all relations in a document because the number of entity pairs in document-level RE grows quadratically with the number of entities. To solve the common incomplete labeling problem, we propose a unified positive-unlabeled learning framework - shift and squared ranking loss positive-unlabeled (SSR-PU) learning. We use positive-unlabeled (PU) learning on document-level RE for the first time. Considering that labeled data of a dataset may lead to prior shift of unlabeled data, we introduce a PU learning under prior shift of training data. Also, using none-class score as an adaptive threshold, we propose squared ranking loss and prove its Bayesian consistency with multi-label ranking metrics. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method achieves an improvement of about 14 F1 points relative to the previous baseline with incomplete labeling. In addition, it outperforms previous state-of-the-art results under both fully supervised and extremely unlabeled settings as well.


pdf bib
PDALN: Progressive Domain Adaptation over a Pre-trained Model for Low-Resource Cross-Domain Named Entity Recognition
Tao Zhang | Congying Xia | Philip S. Yu | Zhiwei Liu | Shu Zhao
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Cross-domain Named Entity Recognition (NER) transfers the NER knowledge from high-resource domains to the low-resource target domain. Due to limited labeled resources and domain shift, cross-domain NER is a challenging task. To address these challenges, we propose a progressive domain adaptation Knowledge Distillation (KD) approach – PDALN. It achieves superior domain adaptability by employing three components: (1) Adaptive data augmentation techniques, which alleviate cross-domain gap and label sparsity simultaneously; (2) Multi-level Domain invariant features, derived from a multi-grained MMD (Maximum Mean Discrepancy) approach, to enable knowledge transfer across domains; (3) Advanced KD schema, which progressively enables powerful pre-trained language models to perform domain adaptation. Extensive experiments on four benchmarks show that PDALN can effectively adapt high-resource domains to low-resource target domains, even if they are diverse in terms and writing styles. Comparison with other baselines indicates the state-of-the-art performance of PDALN.


pdf bib
MIE: A Medical Information Extractor towards Medical Dialogues
Yuanzhe Zhang | Zhongtao Jiang | Tao Zhang | Shiwan Liu | Jiarun Cao | Kang Liu | Shengping Liu | Jun Zhao
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) have become key components of modern medical care systems. Despite the merits of EMRs, many doctors suffer from writing them, which is time-consuming and tedious. We believe that automatically converting medical dialogues to EMRs can greatly reduce the burdens of doctors, and extracting information from medical dialogues is an essential step. To this end, we annotate online medical consultation dialogues in a window-sliding style, which is much easier than the sequential labeling annotation. We then propose a Medical Information Extractor (MIE) towards medical dialogues. MIE is able to extract mentioned symptoms, surgeries, tests, other information and their corresponding status. To tackle the particular challenges of the task, MIE uses a deep matching architecture, taking dialogue turn-interaction into account. The experimental results demonstrate MIE is a promising solution to extract medical information from doctor-patient dialogues.

pdf bib
MZET: Memory Augmented Zero-Shot Fine-grained Named Entity Typing
Tao Zhang | Congying Xia | Chun-Ta Lu | Philip Yu
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Named entity typing (NET) is a classification task of assigning an entity mention in the context with given semantic types. However, with the growing size and granularity of the entity types, few previous researches concern with newly emerged entity types. In this paper, we propose MZET, a novel memory augmented FNET (Fine-grained NET) model, to tackle the unseen types in a zero-shot manner. MZET incorporates character-level, word-level, and contextural-level information to learn the entity mention representation. Besides, MZET considers the semantic meaning and the hierarchical structure into the entity type representation. Finally, through the memory component which models the relationship between the entity mention and the entity type, MZET transfers the knowledge from seen entity types to the zero-shot ones. Extensive experiments on three public datasets show the superior performance obtained by MZET, which surpasses the state-of-the-art FNET neural network models with up to 8% gain in Micro-F1 and Macro-F1 score.


pdf bib
Representation Learning with Ordered Relation Paths for Knowledge Graph Completion
Yao Zhu | Hongzhi Liu | Zhonghai Wu | Yang Song | Tao Zhang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Incompleteness is a common problem for existing knowledge graphs (KGs), and the completion of KG which aims to predict links between entities is challenging. Most existing KG completion methods only consider the direct relation between nodes and ignore the relation paths which contain useful information for link prediction. Recently, a few methods take relation paths into consideration but pay less attention to the order of relations in paths which is important for reasoning. In addition, these path-based models always ignore nonlinear contributions of path features for link prediction. To solve these problems, we propose a novel KG completion method named OPTransE. Instead of embedding both entities of a relation into the same latent space as in previous methods, we project the head entity and the tail entity of each relation into different spaces to guarantee the order of relations in the path. Meanwhile, we adopt a pooling strategy to extract nonlinear and complex features of different paths to further improve the performance of link prediction. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets show that the proposed model OPTransE performs better than state-of-the-art methods.

pdf bib
Domain Adaptation for Person-Job Fit with Transferable Deep Global Match Network
Shuqing Bian | Wayne Xin Zhao | Yang Song | Tao Zhang | Ji-Rong Wen
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Person-job fit has been an important task which aims to automatically match job positions with suitable candidates. Previous methods mainly focus on solving the match task in single-domain setting, which may not work well when labeled data is limited. We study the domain adaptation problem for person-job fit. We first propose a deep global match network for capturing the global semantic interactions between two sentences from a job posting and a candidate resume respectively. Furthermore, we extend the match network and implement domain adaptation in three levels, sentence-level representation, sentence-level match, and global match. Extensive experiment results on a large real-world dataset consisting of six domains have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed model, especially when there is not sufficient labeled data.