Neural discrete reasoning (NDR) has shown remarkable progress in combining deep models with discrete reasoning. However, we find that existing NDR solution suffers from large performance drop on hypothetical questions, e.g. “what the annualized rate of return would be if the revenue in 2020 was doubled”. The key to hypothetical question answering (HQA) is counterfactual thinking, which is a natural ability of human reasoning but difficult for deep models. In this work, we devise a Learning to Imagine (L2I) module, which can be seamlessly incorporated into NDR models to perform the imagination of unseen counterfactual. In particular, we formulate counterfactual thinking into two steps: 1) identifying the fact to intervene, and 2) deriving the counterfactual from the fact and assumption, which are designed as neural networks. Based on TAT-QA, we construct a very challenging HQA dataset with 8,283 hypothetical questions. We apply the proposed L2I to TAGOP, the state-of-the-art solution on TAT-QA, validating the rationality and effectiveness of our approach.
Discovering new slots is critical to the success of dialogue systems. Most existing methods rely on automatic slot induction in unsupervised fashion or perform domain adaptation across zero or few-shot scenarios. They have difficulties in providing high-quality supervised signals to learn clustering-friendly features, and are limited in effectively transferring the prior knowledge from known slots to new slots. In this work, we propose a Semi-supervised Incremental Clustering method (SIC), to discover new slots with the aid of existing linguistic annotation models and limited known slot data. Specifically, we harvest slot value candidates with NLP model cues and innovatively formulate the slot discovery task under an incremental clustering framework. The model gradually calibrate slot representations under the supervision of generated pseudo-labels, and automatically learns to terminate when no more salient slot remains. Our thorough evaluation on five public datasets demonstrates that it significantly outperforms state-of-the-art models.
We study automatic Contract Clause Extraction (CCE) by modeling implicit relations in legal contracts. Existing CCE methods mostly treat contracts as plain text, creating a substantial barrier to understanding contracts of high complexity. In this work, we first comprehensively analyze the complexity issues of contracts and distill out three implicit relations commonly found in contracts, namely, 1) Long-range Context Relation that captures the correlations of distant clauses; 2) Term-Definition Relation that captures the relation between important terms with their corresponding definitions, and 3) Similar Clause Relation that captures the similarities between clauses of the same type. Then we propose a novel framework ConReader to exploit the above three relations for better contract understanding and improving CCE. Experimental results show that ConReader makes the prediction more interpretable and achieves new state-of-the-art on two CCE tasks in both conventional and zero-shot settings.
This survey aims to sort out the recent advances in video question answering (VideoQA) and point towards future directions. We firstly categorize the datasets into 1) normal VideoQA, multi-modal VideoQA and knowledge-based VideoQA, according to the modalities invoked in the question-answer pairs, or 2) factoid VideoQA and inference VideoQA, according to the technical challenges in comprehending the questions and deriving the correct answers. We then summarize the VideoQA techniques, including those mainly designed for Factoid QA (e.g., the early spatio-temporal attention-based methods and the recently Transformer-based ones) and those targeted at explicit relation and logic inference (e.g., neural modular networks, neural symbolic methods, and graph-structured methods). Aside from the backbone techniques, we delve into the specific models and find out some common and useful insights either for video modeling, question answering, or for cross-modal correspondence learning. Finally, we point out the research trend of studying beyond factoid VideoQA to inference VideoQA, as well as towards the robustness and interpretability. Additionally, we maintain a repository, https://github.com/VRU-NExT/VideoQA, to keep trace of the latest VideoQA papers, datasets, and their open-source implementations if available. With these efforts, we strongly hope this survey could shed light on the follow-up VideoQA research.
To facilitate conversational question answering (CQA) over hybrid contexts in finance, we present a new dataset, named PACIFIC. Compared with existing CQA datasets, PACIFIC exhibits three key features: (i) proactivity, (ii) numerical reasoning, and (iii) hybrid context of tables and text. A new task is defined accordingly to study Proactive Conversational Question Answering (PCQA), which combines clarification question generation and CQA. In addition, we propose a novel method, namely UniPCQA, to adapt a hybrid format of input and output content in PCQA into the Seq2Seq problem, including the reformulation of the numerical reasoning process as code generation. UniPCQA performs multi-task learning over all sub-tasks in PCQA and incorporates a simple ensemble strategy to alleviate the error propagation issue in the multi-task learning by cross-validating top-k sampled Seq2Seq outputs. We benchmark the PACIFIC dataset with extensive baselines and provide comprehensive evaluations on each sub-task of PCQA.
Vision-language pre-training (VLP) has shown impressive performance on a wide range of cross-modal tasks, where VLP models without reliance on object detectors are becoming the mainstream due to their superior computation efficiency and competitive performance. However, the removal of object detectors also deprives the capability of VLP models in explicit object modeling, which is essential to various position-sensitive vision-language (VL) tasks, such as referring expression comprehension and visual commonsense reasoning. To address the challenge, we introduce PEVL that enhances the pre-training and prompt tuning of VLP models with explicit object position modeling. Specifically, PEVL reformulates discretized object positions and language in a unified language modeling framework, which facilitates explicit VL alignment during pre-training, and also enables flexible prompt tuning for various downstream tasks. We show that PEVL enables state-of-the-art performance of detector-free VLP models on position-sensitive tasks such as referring expression comprehension and phrase grounding, and also improves the performance on position-insensitive tasks with grounded inputs. We make the data and code for this paper publicly available at https://github.com/thunlp/PEVL.
Abstract Tracking dialogue states to better interpret user goals and feed downstream policy learning is a bottleneck in dialogue management. Common practice has been to treat it as a problem of classifying dialogue content into a set of pre-defined slot-value pairs, or generating values for different slots given the dialogue history. Both have limitations on considering dependencies that occur on dialogues, and are lacking of reasoning capabilities. This paper proposes to track dialogue states gradually with reasoning over dialogue turns with the help of the back-end data. Empirical results demonstrate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of joint belief accuracy for MultiWOZ 2.1, a large-scale human–human dialogue dataset across multiple domains.
Hybrid data combining both tabular and textual content (e.g., financial reports) are quite pervasive in the real world. However, Question Answering (QA) over such hybrid data is largely neglected in existing research. In this work, we extract samples from real financial reports to build a new large-scale QA dataset containing both Tabular And Textual data, named TAT-QA, where numerical reasoning is usually required to infer the answer, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, counting, comparison/sorting, and the compositions. We further propose a novel QA model termed TAGOP, which is capable of reasoning over both tables and text. It adopts sequence tagging to extract relevant cells from the table along with relevant spans from the text to infer their semantics, and then applies symbolic reasoning over them with a set of aggregation operators to arrive at the final answer. TAGOP achieves 58.0% inF1, which is an 11.1% absolute increase over the previous best baseline model, according to our experiments on TAT-QA. But this result still lags far behind performance of expert human, i.e.90.8% in F1. It is demonstrated that our TAT-QA is very challenging and can serve as a benchmark for training and testing powerful QA models that address hybrid form data.
Knowledge Graph (KG) and attention mechanism have been demonstrated effective in introducing and selecting useful information for weakly supervised methods. However, only qualitative analysis and ablation study are provided as evidence. In this paper, we contribute a dataset and propose a paradigm to quantitatively evaluate the effect of attention and KG on bag-level relation extraction (RE). We find that (1) higher attention accuracy may lead to worse performance as it may harm the model’s ability to extract entity mention features; (2) the performance of attention is largely influenced by various noise distribution patterns, which is closely related to real-world datasets; (3) KG-enhanced attention indeed improves RE performance, while not through enhanced attention but by incorporating entity prior; and (4) attention mechanism may exacerbate the issue of insufficient training data. Based on these findings, we show that a straightforward variant of RE model can achieve significant improvements (6% AUC on average) on two real-world datasets as compared with three state-of-the-art baselines. Our codes and datasets are available at https://github.com/zig-kwin-hu/how-KG-ATT-help.
Grammatical Error Correction (GEC) aims to correct writing errors and help language learners improve their writing skills. However, existing GEC models tend to produce spurious corrections or fail to detect lots of errors. The quality estimation model is necessary to ensure learners get accurate GEC results and avoid misleading from poorly corrected sentences. Well-trained GEC models can generate several high-quality hypotheses through decoding, such as beam search, which provide valuable GEC evidence and can be used to evaluate GEC quality. However, existing models neglect the possible GEC evidence from different hypotheses. This paper presents the Neural Verification Network (VERNet) for GEC quality estimation with multiple hypotheses. VERNet establishes interactions among hypotheses with a reasoning graph and conducts two kinds of attention mechanisms to propagate GEC evidence to verify the quality of generated hypotheses. Our experiments on four GEC datasets show that VERNet achieves state-of-the-art grammatical error detection performance, achieves the best quality estimation results, and significantly improves GEC performance by reranking hypotheses. All data and source codes are available at https://github.com/thunlp/VERNet.
Most existing approaches for goal-oriented dialogue policy learning used reinforcement learning, which focuses on the target agent policy and simply treats the opposite agent policy as part of the environment. While in real-world scenarios, the behavior of an opposite agent often exhibits certain patterns or underlies hidden policies, which can be inferred and utilized by the target agent to facilitate its own decision making. This strategy is common in human mental simulation by first imaging a specific action and the probable results before really acting it. We therefore propose an opposite behavior aware framework for policy learning in goal-oriented dialogues. We estimate the opposite agent’s policy from its behavior and use this estimation to improve the target agent by regarding it as part of the target policy. We evaluate our model on both cooperative and competitive dialogue tasks, showing superior performance over state-of-the-art baselines.
The curse of knowledge can impede communication between experts and laymen. We propose a new task of expertise style transfer and contribute a manually annotated dataset with the goal of alleviating such cognitive biases. Solving this task not only simplifies the professional language, but also improves the accuracy and expertise level of laymen descriptions using simple words. This is a challenging task, unaddressed in previous work, as it requires the models to have expert intelligence in order to modify text with a deep understanding of domain knowledge and structures. We establish the benchmark performance of five state-of-the-art models for style transfer and text simplification. The results demonstrate a significant gap between machine and human performance. We also discuss the challenges of automatic evaluation, to provide insights into future research directions. The dataset is publicly available at https://srhthu.github.io/expertise-style-transfer/.
This paper proposes the problem of Deep Question Generation (DQG), which aims to generate complex questions that require reasoning over multiple pieces of information about the input passage. In order to capture the global structure of the document and facilitate reasoning, we propose a novel framework that first constructs a semantic-level graph for the input document and then encodes the semantic graph by introducing an attention-based GGNN (Att-GGNN). Afterward, we fuse the document-level and graph-level representations to perform joint training of content selection and question decoding. On the HotpotQA deep-question centric dataset, our model greatly improves performance over questions requiring reasoning over multiple facts, leading to state-of-the-art performance. The code is publicly available at https://github.com/WING-NUS/SG-Deep-Question-Generation.
Entity alignment (EA) aims at building a unified Knowledge Graph (KG) of rich content by linking the equivalent entities from various KGs. GNN-based EA methods present promising performance by modeling the KG structure defined by relation triples. However, attribute triples can also provide crucial alignment signal but have not been well explored yet. In this paper, we propose to utilize an attributed value encoder and partition the KG into subgraphs to model the various types of attribute triples efficiently. Besides, the performances of current EA methods are overestimated because of the name-bias of existing EA datasets. To make an objective evaluation, we propose a hard experimental setting where we select equivalent entity pairs with very different names as the test set. Under both the regular and hard settings, our method achieves significant improvements (5.10% on average Hits@1 in DBP15k) over 12 baselines in cross-lingual and monolingual datasets. Ablation studies on different subgraphs and a case study about attribute types further demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. Source code and data can be found at https://github.com/thunlp/explore-and-evaluate.
In existing sophisticated text-to-SQL models, schema linking is often considered as a simple, minor component, belying its importance. By providing a schema linking corpus based on the Spider text-to-SQL dataset, we systematically study the role of schema linking. We also build a simple BERT-based baseline, called Schema-Linking SQL (SLSQL) to perform a data-driven study. We find when schema linking is done well, SLSQL demonstrates good performance on Spider despite its structural simplicity. Many remaining errors are attributable to corpus noise. This suggests schema linking is the crux for the current text-to-SQL task. Our analytic studies provide insights on the characteristics of schema linking for future developments of text-to-SQL tasks.
In this paper, we propose a novel graph neural network with generated parameters (GP-GNNs). The parameters in the propagation module, i.e. the transition matrices used in message passing procedure, are produced by a generator taking natural language sentences as inputs. We verify GP-GNNs in relation extraction from text, both on bag- and instance-settings. Experimental results on a human-annotated dataset and two distantly supervised datasets show that multi-hop reasoning mechanism yields significant improvements. We also perform a qualitative analysis to demonstrate that our model could discover more accurate relations by multi-hop relational reasoning.
Entity alignment typically suffers from the issues of structural heterogeneity and limited seed alignments. In this paper, we propose a novel Multi-channel Graph Neural Network model (MuGNN) to learn alignment-oriented knowledge graph (KG) embeddings by robustly encoding two KGs via multiple channels. Each channel encodes KGs via different relation weighting schemes with respect to self-attention towards KG completion and cross-KG attention for pruning exclusive entities respectively, which are further combined via pooling techniques. Moreover, we also infer and transfer rule knowledge for completing two KGs consistently. MuGNN is expected to reconcile the structural differences of two KGs, and thus make better use of seed alignments. Extensive experiments on five publicly available datasets demonstrate our superior performance (5% Hits@1 up on average). Source code and data used in the experiments can be accessed at https://github.com/thunlp/MuGNN .
Name tagging in low-resource languages or domains suffers from inadequate training data. Existing work heavily relies on additional information, while leaving those noisy annotations unexplored that extensively exist on the web. In this paper, we propose a novel neural model for name tagging solely based on weakly labeled (WL) data, so that it can be applied in any low-resource settings. To take the best advantage of all WL sentences, we split them into high-quality and noisy portions for two modules, respectively: (1) a classification module focusing on the large portion of noisy data can efficiently and robustly pretrain the tag classifier by capturing textual context semantics; and (2) a costly sequence labeling module focusing on high-quality data utilizes Partial-CRFs with non-entity sampling to achieve global optimum. Two modules are combined via shared parameters. Extensive experiments involving five low-resource languages and fine-grained food domain demonstrate our superior performance (6% and 7.8% F1 gains on average) as well as efficiency.
While achieving great fluency, current machine translation (MT) techniques are bottle-necked by adequacy issues. To have a closer study of these issues and accelerate model development, we propose automatic detecting adequacy errors in MT hypothesis for MT model evaluation. To do that, we annotate missing and wrong translations, the two most prevalent issues for current neural machine translation model, in 15000 Chinese-English translation pairs. We build a supervised alignment model for translation error detection (AlignDet) based on a simple Alignment Triangle strategy to set the benchmark for automatic error detection task. We also discuss the difficulties of this task and the benefits of this task for existing evaluation metrics.
Entity alignment aims at integrating complementary knowledge graphs (KGs) from different sources or languages, which may benefit many knowledge-driven applications. It is challenging due to the heterogeneity of KGs and limited seed alignments. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised entity alignment method by joint Knowledge Embedding model and Cross-Graph model (KECG). It can make better use of seed alignments to propagate over the entire graphs with KG-based constraints. Specifically, as for the knowledge embedding model, we utilize TransE to implicitly complete two KGs towards consistency and learn relational constraints between entities. As for the cross-graph model, we extend Graph Attention Network (GAT) with projection constraint to robustly encode graphs, and two KGs share the same GAT to transfer structural knowledge as well as to ignore unimportant neighbors for alignment via attention mechanism. Results on publicly available datasets as well as further analysis demonstrate the effectiveness of KECG. Our codes can be found in https: //github.com/THU-KEG/KECG.
We introduce an effective and efficient method that grounds (i.e., localizes) natural sentences in long, untrimmed video sequences. Specifically, a novel Temporal GroundNet (TGN) is proposed to temporally capture the evolving fine-grained frame-by-word interactions between video and sentence. TGN sequentially scores a set of temporal candidates ended at each frame based on the exploited frame-by-word interactions, and finally grounds the segment corresponding to the sentence. Unlike traditional methods treating the overlapping segments separately in a sliding window fashion, TGN aggregates the historical information and generates the final grounding result in one single pass. We extensively evaluate our proposed TGN on three public datasets with significant improvements over the state-of-the-arts. We further show the consistent effectiveness and efficiency of TGN through an ablation study and a runtime test.