Tatsuya Hiraoka


2022

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Joint Entity and Relation Extraction Based on Table Labeling Using Convolutional Neural Networks
Youmi Ma | Tatsuya Hiraoka | Naoaki Okazaki
Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Structured Prediction for NLP

This study introduces a novel approach to the joint extraction of entities and relations by stacking convolutional neural networks (CNNs) on pretrained language models. We adopt table representations to model the entities and relations, casting the entity and relation extraction as a table-labeling problem. Regarding each table as an image and each cell in a table as an image pixel, we apply two-dimensional CNNs to the tables to capture local dependencies and predict the cell labels. The experimental results showed that the performance of the proposed method is comparable to those of current state-of-art systems on the CoNLL04, ACE05, and ADE datasets.Even when freezing pretrained language model parameters, the proposed method showed a stable performance, whereas the compared methods suffered from significant decreases in performance. This observation indicates that the parameters of the pretrained encoder may incorporate dependencies among the entity and relation labels during fine-tuning.

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Single Model Ensemble for Subword Regularized Models in Low-Resource Machine Translation
Sho Takase | Tatsuya Hiraoka | Naoaki Okazaki
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Subword regularizations use multiple subword segmentations during training to improve the robustness of neural machine translation models.In previous subword regularizations, we use multiple segmentations in the training process but use only one segmentation in the inference.In this study, we propose an inference strategy to address this discrepancy.The proposed strategy approximates the marginalized likelihood by using multiple segmentations including the most plausible segmentation and several sampled segmentations.Because the proposed strategy aggregates predictions from several segmentations, we can regard it as a single model ensemble that does not require any additional cost for training.Experimental results show that the proposed strategy improves the performance of models trained with subword regularization in low-resource machine translation tasks.

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Word-level Perturbation Considering Word Length and Compositional Subwords
Tatsuya Hiraoka | Sho Takase | Kei Uchiumi | Atsushi Keyaki | Naoaki Okazaki
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

We present two simple modifications for word-level perturbation: Word Replacement considering Length (WR-L) and Compositional Word Replacement (CWR).In conventional word replacement, a word in an input is replaced with a word sampled from the entire vocabulary, regardless of the length and context of the target word.WR-L considers the length of a target word by sampling words from the Poisson distribution.CWR considers the compositional candidates by restricting the source of sampling to related words that appear in subword regularization.Experimental results showed that the combination of WR-L and CWR improved the performance of text classification and machine translation.

2021

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Joint Optimization of Tokenization and Downstream Model
Tatsuya Hiraoka | Sho Takase | Kei Uchiumi | Atsushi Keyaki | Naoaki Okazaki
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

2020

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Optimizing Word Segmentation for Downstream Task
Tatsuya Hiraoka | Sho Takase | Kei Uchiumi | Atsushi Keyaki | Naoaki Okazaki
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

In traditional NLP, we tokenize a given sentence as a preprocessing, and thus the tokenization is unrelated to a target downstream task. To address this issue, we propose a novel method to explore a tokenization which is appropriate for the downstream task. Our proposed method, optimizing tokenization (OpTok), is trained to assign a high probability to such appropriate tokenization based on the downstream task loss. OpTok can be used for any downstream task which uses a vector representation of a sentence such as text classification. Experimental results demonstrate that OpTok improves the performance of sentiment analysis and textual entailment. In addition, we introduce OpTok into BERT, the state-of-the-art contextualized embeddings and report a positive effect.

2019

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Stochastic Tokenization with a Language Model for Neural Text Classification
Tatsuya Hiraoka | Hiroyuki Shindo | Yuji Matsumoto
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

For unsegmented languages such as Japanese and Chinese, tokenization of a sentence has a significant impact on the performance of text classification. Sentences are usually segmented with words or subwords by a morphological analyzer or byte pair encoding and then encoded with word (or subword) representations for neural networks. However, segmentation is potentially ambiguous, and it is unclear whether the segmented tokens achieve the best performance for the target task. In this paper, we propose a method to simultaneously learn tokenization and text classification to address these problems. Our model incorporates a language model for unsupervised tokenization into a text classifier and then trains both models simultaneously. To make the model robust against infrequent tokens, we sampled segmentation for each sentence stochastically during training, which resulted in improved performance of text classification. We conducted experiments on sentiment analysis as a text classification task and show that our method achieves better performance than previous methods.