Tejas Srinivasan


2022

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Worst of Both Worlds: Biases Compound in Pre-trained Vision-and-Language Models
Tejas Srinivasan | Yonatan Bisk
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Gender Bias in Natural Language Processing (GeBNLP)

Numerous works have analyzed biases in vision and pre-trained language models individually - however, less attention has been paid to how these biases interact in multimodal settings. This work extends text-based bias analysis methods to investigate multimodal language models, and analyzes intra- and inter-modality associations and biases learned by these models. Specifically, we demonstrate that VL-BERT (Su et al., 2020) exhibits gender biases, often preferring to reinforce a stereotype over faithfully describing the visual scene. We demonstrate these findings on a controlled case-study and extend them for a larger set of stereotypically gendered entities.

2020

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Fine-Grained Grounding for Multimodal Speech Recognition
Tejas Srinivasan | Ramon Sanabria | Florian Metze | Desmond Elliott
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Multimodal automatic speech recognition systems integrate information from images to improve speech recognition quality, by grounding the speech in the visual context. While visual signals have been shown to be useful for recovering entities that have been masked in the audio, these models should be capable of recovering a broader range of word types. Existing systems rely on global visual features that represent the entire image, but localizing the relevant regions of the image will make it possible to recover a larger set of words, such as adjectives and verbs. In this paper, we propose a model that uses finer-grained visual information from different parts of the image, using automatic object proposals. In experiments on the Flickr8K Audio Captions Corpus, we find that our model improves over approaches that use global visual features, that the proposals enable the model to recover entities and other related words, such as adjectives, and that improvements are due to the model’s ability to localize the correct proposals.

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Multimodal Speech Recognition with Unstructured Audio Masking
Tejas Srinivasan | Ramon Sanabria | Florian Metze | Desmond Elliott
Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Natural Language Processing Beyond Text

Visual context has been shown to be useful for automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems when the speech signal is noisy or corrupted. Previous work, however, has only demonstrated the utility of visual context in an unrealistic setting, where a fixed set of words are systematically masked in the audio. In this paper, we simulate a more realistic masking scenario during model training, called RandWordMask, where the masking can occur for any word segment. Our experiments on the Flickr 8K Audio Captions Corpus show that multimodal ASR can generalize to recover different types of masked words in this unstructured masking setting. Moreover, our analysis shows that our models are capable of attending to the visual signal when the audio signal is corrupted. These results show that multimodal ASR systems can leverage the visual signal in more generalized noisy scenarios.

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Reasoning Over History: Context Aware Visual Dialog
Muhammad Shah | Shikib Mehri | Tejas Srinivasan
Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Natural Language Processing Beyond Text

While neural models have been shown to exhibit strong performance on single-turn visual question answering (VQA) tasks, extending VQA to a multi-turn, conversational setting remains a challenge. One way to address this challenge is to augment existing strong neural VQA models with the mechanisms that allow them to retain information from previous dialog turns. One strong VQA model is the MAC network, which decomposes a task into a series of attention-based reasoning steps. However, since the MAC network is designed for single-turn question answering, it is not capable of referring to past dialog turns. More specifically, it struggles with tasks that require reasoning over the dialog history, particularly coreference resolution. We extend the MAC network architecture with Context-aware Attention and Memory (CAM), which attends over control states in past dialog turns to determine the necessary reasoning operations for the current question. MAC nets with CAM achieve up to 98.25% accuracy on the CLEVR-Dialog dataset, beating the existing state-of-the-art by 30% (absolute). Our error analysis indicates that with CAM, the model’s performance particularly improved on questions that required coreference resolution.

2019

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Structured Fusion Networks for Dialog
Shikib Mehri | Tejas Srinivasan | Maxine Eskenazi
Proceedings of the 20th Annual SIGdial Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue

Neural dialog models have exhibited strong performance, however their end-to-end nature lacks a representation of the explicit structure of dialog. This results in a loss of generalizability, controllability and a data-hungry nature. Conversely, more traditional dialog systems do have strong models of explicit structure. This paper introduces several approaches for explicitly incorporating structure into neural models of dialog. Structured Fusion Networks first learn neural dialog modules corresponding to the structured components of traditional dialog systems and then incorporate these modules in a higher-level generative model. Structured Fusion Networks obtain strong results on the MultiWOZ dataset, both with and without reinforcement learning. Structured Fusion Networks are shown to have several valuable properties, including better domain generalizability, improved performance in reduced data scenarios and robustness to divergence during reinforcement learning.

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CMU’s Machine Translation System for IWSLT 2019
Tejas Srinivasan | Ramon Sanabria | Florian Metze
Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation

In Neural Machine Translation (NMT) the usage of sub-words and characters as source and target units offers a simple and flexible solution for translation of rare and unseen words. However, selecting the optimal subword segmentation involves a trade-off between expressiveness and flexibility, and is language and dataset-dependent. We present Block Multitask Learning (BMTL), a novel NMT architecture that predicts multiple targets of different granularities simulta- neously, removing the need to search for the optimal seg- mentation strategy. Our multi-task model exhibits improvements of up to 1.7 BLEU points on each decoder over single-task baseline models with the same number of parameters on datasets from two language pairs of IWSLT15 and one from IWSLT19. The multiple hypotheses generated at different granularities can also be combined as a post-processing step to give better translations.

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Multitask Learning For Different Subword Segmentations In Neural Machine Translation
Tejas Srinivasan | Ramon Sanabria | Florian Metze
Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation

In Neural Machine Translation (NMT) the usage of sub􏰃words and characters as source and target units offers a simple and flexible solution for translation of rare and unseen words. However, selecting the optimal subword segmentation involves a trade-off between expressiveness and flexibility, and is language and dataset-dependent. We present Block Multitask Learning (BMTL), a novel NMT architecture that predicts multiple targets of different granularities simultaneously, removing the need to search for the optimal segmentation strategy. Our multi-task model exhibits improvements of up to 1.7 BLEU points on each decoder over single-task baseline models with the same number of parameters on datasets from two language pairs of IWSLT15 and one from IWSLT19. The multiple hypotheses generated at different granularities can be combined as a post-processing step to give better translations, which improves over hypothesis combination from baseline models while using substantially fewer parameters.