Tejas Vaidhya


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Logical Fallacy Detection
Zhijing Jin | Abhinav Lalwani | Tejas Vaidhya | Xiaoyu Shen | Yiwen Ding | Zhiheng Lyu | Mrinmaya Sachan | Rada Mihalcea | Bernhard Schoelkopf
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Reasoning is central to human intelligence. However, fallacious arguments are common, and some exacerbate problems such as spreading misinformation about climate change. In this paper, we propose the task of logical fallacy detection, and provide a new dataset (Logic) of logical fallacies generally found in text, together with an additional challenge set for detecting logical fallacies in climate change claims (LogicClimate). Detecting logical fallacies is a hard problem as the model must understand the underlying logical structure of the argument. We find that existing pretrained large language models perform poorly on this task. In contrast, we show that a simple structure-aware classifier outperforms the best language model by 5.46% F1 scores on Logic and 4.51% on LogicClimate. We encourage future work to explore this task since (a) it can serve as a new reasoning challenge for language models, and (b) it can have potential applications in tackling the spread of misinformation. Our dataset and code are available at https://github.com/causalNLP/logical-fallacy


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Mining the Cause of Political Decision-Making from Social Media: A Case Study of COVID-19 Policies across the US States
Zhijing Jin | Zeyu Peng | Tejas Vaidhya | Bernhard Schoelkopf | Rada Mihalcea
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Mining the causes of political decision-making is an active research area in the field of political science. In the past, most studies have focused on long-term policies that are collected over several decades of time, and have primarily relied on surveys as the main source of predictors. However, the recent COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to a new political phenomenon, where political decision-making consists of frequent short-term decisions, all on the same controlled topic—the pandemic. In this paper, we focus on the question of how public opinion influences policy decisions, while controlling for confounders such as COVID-19 case increases or unemployment rates. Using a dataset consisting of Twitter data from the 50 US states, we classify the sentiments toward governors of each state, and conduct controlled studies and comparisons. Based on the compiled samples of sentiments, policies, and confounders, we conduct causal inference to discover trends in political decision-making across different states.

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Causal Direction of Data Collection Matters: Implications of Causal and Anticausal Learning for NLP
Zhijing Jin | Julius von Kügelgen | Jingwei Ni | Tejas Vaidhya | Ayush Kaushal | Mrinmaya Sachan | Bernhard Schoelkopf
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The principle of independent causal mechanisms (ICM) states that generative processes of real world data consist of independent modules which do not influence or inform each other. While this idea has led to fruitful developments in the field of causal inference, it is not widely-known in the NLP community. In this work, we argue that the causal direction of the data collection process bears nontrivial implications that can explain a number of published NLP findings, such as differences in semi-supervised learning (SSL) and domain adaptation (DA) performance across different settings. We categorize common NLP tasks according to their causal direction and empirically assay the validity of the ICM principle for text data using minimum description length. We conduct an extensive meta-analysis of over 100 published SSL and 30 DA studies, and find that the results are consistent with our expectations based on causal insights. This work presents the first attempt to analyze the ICM principle in NLP, and provides constructive suggestions for future modeling choices.


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IITKGP at W-NUT 2020 Shared Task-1: Domain specific BERT representation for Named Entity Recognition of lab protocol
Tejas Vaidhya | Ayush Kaushal
Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Noisy User-generated Text (W-NUT 2020)

Supervised models trained to predict properties from representations have been achieving high accuracy on a variety of tasks. For in-stance, the BERT family seems to work exceptionally well on the downstream task from NER tagging to the range of other linguistictasks. But the vocabulary used in the medical field contains a lot of different tokens used only in the medical industry such as the name of different diseases, devices, organisms,medicines, etc. that makes it difficult for traditional BERT model to create contextualized embedding. In this paper, we are going to illustrate the System for Named Entity Tagging based on Bio-Bert. Experimental results show that our model gives substantial improvements over the baseline and stood the fourth runner up in terms of F1 score, and first runner up in terms of Recall with just 2.21 F1 score behind the best one.

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Winners at W-NUT 2020 Shared Task-3: Leveraging Event Specific and Chunk Span information for Extracting COVID Entities from Tweets
Ayush Kaushal | Tejas Vaidhya
Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Noisy User-generated Text (W-NUT 2020)

Twitter has acted as an important source of information during disasters and pandemic, especially during the times of COVID-19. In this paper, we describe our system entry for WNUT 2020 Shared Task-3. The task was aimed at automating the extraction of a variety of COVID-19 related events from Twitter, such as individuals who recently contracted the virus, someone with symptoms who were denied testing and believed remedies against the infection. The system consists of separate multi-task models for slot-filling subtasks and sentence-classification subtasks, while leveraging the useful sentence-level information for the corresponding event. The system uses COVID-Twitter-BERT with attention-weighted pooling of candidate slot-chunk features to capture the useful information chunks. The system ranks 1st at the leaderboard with F1 of 0.6598, without using any ensembles or additional datasets.