Tengyu Ma


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Entity and Evidence Guided Document-Level Relation Extraction
Kevin Huang | Peng Qi | Guangtao Wang | Tengyu Ma | Jing Huang
Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP (RepL4NLP-2021)

Document-level relation extraction is a challenging task, requiring reasoning over multiple sentences to predict a set of relations in a document. In this paper, we propose a novel framework E2GRE (Entity and Evidence Guided Relation Extraction) that jointly extracts relations and the underlying evidence sentences by using large pretrained language model (LM) as input encoder. First, we propose to guide the pretrained LM’s attention mechanism to focus on relevant context by using attention probabilities as additional features for evidence prediction. Furthermore, instead of feeding the whole document into pretrained LMs to obtain entity representation, we concatenate document text with head entities to help LMs concentrate on parts of the document that are more related to the head entity. Our E2GRE jointly learns relation extraction and evidence prediction effectively, showing large gains on both these tasks, which we find are highly correlated.

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Variance-reduced First-order Meta-learning for Natural Language Processing Tasks
Lingxiao Wang | Kevin Huang | Tengyu Ma | Quanquan Gu | Jing Huang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

First-order meta-learning algorithms have been widely used in practice to learn initial model parameters that can be quickly adapted to new tasks due to their efficiency and effectiveness. However, existing studies find that meta-learner can overfit to some specific adaptation when we have heterogeneous tasks, leading to significantly degraded performance. In Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications, datasets are often diverse and each task has its unique characteristics. Therefore, to address the overfitting issue when applying first-order meta-learning to NLP applications, we propose to reduce the variance of the gradient estimator used in task adaptation. To this end, we develop a variance-reduced first-order meta-learning algorithm. The core of our algorithm is to introduce a novel variance reduction term to the gradient estimation when performing the task adaptation. Experiments on two NLP applications: few-shot text classification and multi-domain dialog state tracking demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed method.


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A La Carte Embedding: Cheap but Effective Induction of Semantic Feature Vectors
Mikhail Khodak | Nikunj Saunshi | Yingyu Liang | Tengyu Ma | Brandon Stewart | Sanjeev Arora
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Motivations like domain adaptation, transfer learning, and feature learning have fueled interest in inducing embeddings for rare or unseen words, n-grams, synsets, and other textual features. This paper introduces a la carte embedding, a simple and general alternative to the usual word2vec-based approaches for building such representations that is based upon recent theoretical results for GloVe-like embeddings. Our method relies mainly on a linear transformation that is efficiently learnable using pretrained word vectors and linear regression. This transform is applicable on the fly in the future when a new text feature or rare word is encountered, even if only a single usage example is available. We introduce a new dataset showing how the a la carte method requires fewer examples of words in context to learn high-quality embeddings and we obtain state-of-the-art results on a nonce task and some unsupervised document classification tasks.

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Linear Algebraic Structure of Word Senses, with Applications to Polysemy
Sanjeev Arora | Yuanzhi Li | Yingyu Liang | Tengyu Ma | Andrej Risteski
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 6

Word embeddings are ubiquitous in NLP and information retrieval, but it is unclear what they represent when the word is polysemous. Here it is shown that multiple word senses reside in linear superposition within the word embedding and simple sparse coding can recover vectors that approximately capture the senses. The success of our approach, which applies to several embedding methods, is mathematically explained using a variant of the random walk on discourses model (Arora et al., 2016). A novel aspect of our technique is that each extracted word sense is accompanied by one of about 2000 “discourse atoms” that gives a succinct description of which other words co-occur with that word sense. Discourse atoms can be of independent interest, and make the method potentially more useful. Empirical tests are used to verify and support the theory.


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A Latent Variable Model Approach to PMI-based Word Embeddings
Sanjeev Arora | Yuanzhi Li | Yingyu Liang | Tengyu Ma | Andrej Risteski
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 4

Semantic word embeddings represent the meaning of a word via a vector, and are created by diverse methods. Many use nonlinear operations on co-occurrence statistics, and have hand-tuned hyperparameters and reweighting methods. This paper proposes a new generative model, a dynamic version of the log-linear topic model of Mnih and Hinton (2007). The methodological novelty is to use the prior to compute closed form expressions for word statistics. This provides a theoretical justification for nonlinear models like PMI, word2vec, and GloVe, as well as some hyperparameter choices. It also helps explain why low-dimensional semantic embeddings contain linear algebraic structure that allows solution of word analogies, as shown by Mikolov et al. (2013a) and many subsequent papers. Experimental support is provided for the generative model assumptions, the most important of which is that latent word vectors are fairly uniformly dispersed in space.