Thanh-Le Ha


2021

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KIT’s IWSLT 2021 Offline Speech Translation System
Tuan Nam Nguyen | Thai Son Nguyen | Christian Huber | Ngoc-Quan Pham | Thanh-Le Ha | Felix Schneider | Sebastian Stüker
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 2021)

This paper describes KIT’submission to the IWSLT 2021 Offline Speech Translation Task. We describe a system in both cascaded condition and end-to-end condition. In the cascaded condition, we investigated different end-to-end architectures for the speech recognition module. For the text segmentation module, we trained a small transformer-based model on high-quality monolingual data. For the translation module, our last year’s neural machine translation model was reused. In the end-to-end condition, we improved our Speech Relative Transformer architecture to reach or even surpass the result of the cascade system.

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Multilingual Speech Translation KIT @ IWSLT2021
Ngoc-Quan Pham | Tuan Nam Nguyen | Thanh-Le Ha | Sebastian Stüker | Alexander Waibel | Dan He
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 2021)

This paper contains the description for the submission of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) for the multilingual TEDx translation task in the IWSLT 2021 evaluation campaign. Our main approach is to develop both cascade and end-to-end systems and eventually combine them together to achieve the best possible results for this extremely low-resource setting. The report also confirms certain consistent architectural improvement added to the Transformer architecture, for all tasks: translation, transcription and speech translation.

2020

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KIT’s IWSLT 2020 SLT Translation System
Ngoc-Quan Pham | Felix Schneider | Tuan-Nam Nguyen | Thanh-Le Ha | Thai Son Nguyen | Maximilian Awiszus | Sebastian Stüker | Alexander Waibel
Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation

This paper describes KIT’s submissions to the IWSLT2020 Speech Translation evaluation campaign. We first participate in the simultaneous translation task, in which our simultaneous models are Transformer based and can be efficiently trained to obtain low latency with minimized compromise in quality. On the offline speech translation task, we applied our new Speech Transformer architecture to end-to-end speech translation. The obtained model can provide translation quality which is competitive to a complicated cascade. The latter still has the upper hand, thanks to the ability to transparently access to the transcription, and resegment the inputs to avoid fragmentation.

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Improving Multilingual Neural Machine Translation For Low-Resource Languages: French, English - Vietnamese
Thi-Vinh Ngo | Phuong-Thai Nguyen | Thanh-Le Ha | Khac-Quy Dinh | Le-Minh Nguyen
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Technologies for MT of Low Resource Languages

Prior works have demonstrated that a low-resource language pair can benefit from multilingual machine translation (MT) systems, which rely on many language pairs’ joint training. This paper proposes two simple strategies to address the rare word issue in multilingual MT systems for two low-resource language pairs: French-Vietnamese and English-Vietnamese. The first strategy is about dynamical learning word similarity of tokens in the shared space among source languages while another one attempts to augment the translation ability of rare words through updating their embeddings during the training. Besides, we leverage monolingual data for multilingual MT systems to increase the amount of synthetic parallel corpora while dealing with the data sparsity problem. We have shown significant improvements of up to +1.62 and +2.54 BLEU points over the bilingual baseline systems for both language pairs and released our datasets for the research community.

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Incorporating External Annotation to improve Named Entity Translation in NMT
Maciej Modrzejewski | Miriam Exel | Bianka Buschbeck | Thanh-Le Ha | Alexander Waibel
Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

The correct translation of named entities (NEs) still poses a challenge for conventional neural machine translation (NMT) systems. This study explores methods incorporating named entity recognition (NER) into NMT with the aim to improve named entity translation. It proposes an annotation method that integrates named entities and inside–outside–beginning (IOB) tagging into the neural network input with the use of source factors. Our experiments on English→German and English→ Chinese show that just by including different NE classes and IOB tagging, we can increase the BLEU score by around 1 point using the standard test set from WMT2019 and achieve up to 12% increase in NE translation rates over a strong baseline.

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Removing European Language Barriers with Innovative Machine Translation Technology
Dario Franceschini | Chiara Canton | Ivan Simonini | Armin Schweinfurth | Adelheid Glott | Sebastian Stüker | Thai-Son Nguyen | Felix Schneider | Thanh-Le Ha | Alex Waibel | Barry Haddow | Philip Williams | Rico Sennrich | Ondřej Bojar | Sangeet Sagar | Dominik Macháček | Otakar Smrž
Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Language Technology Platforms

This paper presents our progress towards deploying a versatile communication platform in the task of highly multilingual live speech translation for conferences and remote meetings live subtitling. The platform has been designed with a focus on very low latency and high flexibility while allowing research prototypes of speech and text processing tools to be easily connected, regardless of where they physically run. We outline our architecture solution and also briefly compare it with the ELG platform. Technical details are provided on the most important components and we summarize the test deployment events we ran so far.

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Goals, Challenges and Findings of the VLSP 2020 English-Vietnamese News Translation Shared Task
Thanh-Le Ha | Van-Khanh Tran | Kim-Anh Nguyen
Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Vietnamese Language and Speech Processing

2019

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Overcoming the Rare Word Problem for low-resource language pairs in Neural Machine Translation
Thi-Vinh Ngo | Thanh-Le Ha | Phuong-Thai Nguyen | Le-Minh Nguyen
Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Asian Translation

Among the six challenges of neural machine translation (NMT) coined by (Koehn and Knowles, 2017), rare-word problem is considered the most severe one, especially in translation of low-resource languages. In this paper, we propose three solutions to address the rare words in neural machine translation systems. First, we enhance source context to predict the target words by connecting directly the source embeddings to the output of the attention component in NMT. Second, we propose an algorithm to learn morphology of unknown words for English in supervised way in order to minimize the adverse effect of rare-word problem. Finally, we exploit synonymous relation from the WordNet to overcome out-of-vocabulary (OOV) problem of NMT. We evaluate our approaches on two low-resource language pairs: English-Vietnamese and Japanese-Vietnamese. In our experiments, we have achieved significant improvements of up to roughly +1.0 BLEU points in both language pairs.

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Improving Zero-shot Translation with Language-Independent Constraints
Ngoc-Quan Pham | Jan Niehues | Thanh-Le Ha | Alexander Waibel
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 1: Research Papers)

An important concern in training multilingual neural machine translation (NMT) is to translate between language pairs unseen during training, i.e zero-shot translation. Improving this ability kills two birds with one stone by providing an alternative to pivot translation which also allows us to better understand how the model captures information between languages. In this work, we carried out an investigation on this capability of the multilingual NMT models. First, we intentionally create an encoder architecture which is independent with respect to the source language. Such experiments shed light on the ability of NMT encoders to learn multilingual representations, in general. Based on such proof of concept, we were able to design regularization methods into the standard Transformer model, so that the whole architecture becomes more robust in zero-shot conditions. We investigated the behaviour of such models on the standard IWSLT 2017 multilingual dataset. We achieved an average improvement of 2.23 BLEU points across 12 language pairs compared to the zero-shot performance of a state-of-the-art multilingual system. Additionally, we carry out further experiments in which the effect is confirmed even for language pairs with multiple intermediate pivots.

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The IWSLT 2019 Evaluation Campaign
Jan Niehues | Rolando Cattoni | Sebastian Stüker | Matteo Negri | Marco Turchi | Thanh-Le Ha | Elizabeth Salesky | Ramon Sanabria | Loic Barrault | Lucia Specia | Marcello Federico
Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation

The IWSLT 2019 evaluation campaign featured three tasks: speech translation of (i) TED talks and (ii) How2 instructional videos from English into German and Portuguese, and (iii) text translation of TED talks from English into Czech. For the first two tasks we encouraged submissions of end- to-end speech-to-text systems, and for the second task participants could also use the video as additional input. We received submissions by 12 research teams. This overview provides detailed descriptions of the data and evaluation conditions of each task and reports results of the participating systems.

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The IWSLT 2019 KIT Speech Translation System
Ngoc-Quan Pham | Thai-Son Nguyen | Thanh-Le Ha | Juan Hussain | Felix Schneider | Jan Niehues | Sebastian Stüker | Alexander Waibel
Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation

This paper describes KIT’s submission to the IWSLT 2019 Speech Translation task on two sub-tasks corresponding to two different datasets. We investigate different end-to-end architectures for the speech recognition module, including our new transformer-based architectures. Overall, our modules in the pipe-line are based on the transformer architecture which has recently achieved great results in various fields. In our systems, using transformer is also advantageous compared to traditional hybrid systems in term of simplicity while still having competent results.

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How Transformer Revitalizes Character-based Neural Machine Translation: An Investigation on Japanese-Vietnamese Translation Systems
Thi-Vinh Ngo | Thanh-Le Ha | Phuong-Thai Nguyen | Le-Minh Nguyen
Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation

While translating between East Asian languages, many works have discovered clear advantages of using characters as the translation unit. Unfortunately, traditional recurrent neural machine translation systems hinder the practical usage of those character-based systems due to their architectural limitations. They are unfavorable in handling extremely long sequences as well as highly restricted in parallelizing the computations. In this paper, we demonstrate that the new transformer architecture can perform character-based trans- lation better than the recurrent one. We conduct experiments on a low-resource language pair: Japanese-Vietnamese. Our models considerably outperform the state-of-the-art systems which employ word-based recurrent architectures.

2018

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KIT-Multi: A Translation-Oriented Multilingual Embedding Corpus
Thanh-Le Ha | Jan Niehues | Matthias Sperber | Ngoc Quan Pham | Alexander Waibel
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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KIT’s IWSLT 2018 SLT Translation System
Matthias Sperber | Ngoc-Quan Pham | Thai-Son Nguyen | Jan Niehues | Markus Müller | Thanh-Le Ha | Sebastian Stüker | Alex Waibel
Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation

This paper describes KIT’s submission to the IWSLT 2018 Translation task. We describe a system participating in the baseline condition and a system participating in the end-to-end condition. The baseline system is a cascade of an ASR system, a system to segment the ASR output and a neural machine translation system. We investigate the combination of different ASR systems. For the segmentation and machine translation components, we focused on transformer-based architectures.

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KIT Lecture Translator: Multilingual Speech Translation with One-Shot Learning
Florian Dessloch | Thanh-Le Ha | Markus Müller | Jan Niehues | Thai-Son Nguyen | Ngoc-Quan Pham | Elizabeth Salesky | Matthias Sperber | Sebastian Stüker | Thomas Zenkel | Alexander Waibel
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

In today’s globalized world we have the ability to communicate with people across the world. However, in many situations the language barrier still presents a major issue. For example, many foreign students coming to KIT to study are initially unable to follow a lecture in German. Therefore, we offer an automatic simultaneous interpretation service for students. To fulfill this task, we have developed a low-latency translation system that is adapted to lectures and covers several language pairs. While the switch from traditional Statistical Machine Translation to Neural Machine Translation (NMT) significantly improved performance, to integrate NMT into the speech translation framework required several adjustments. We have addressed the run-time constraints and different types of input. Furthermore, we utilized one-shot learning to easily add new topic-specific terms to the system. Besides better performance, NMT also enabled us increase our covered languages through multilingual NMT. % Combining these techniques, we are able to provide an adapted speech translation system for several European languages.

2017

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KIT’s Multilingual Neural Machine Translation systems for IWSLT 2017
Ngoc-Quan Pham | Matthias Sperber | Elizabeth Salesky | Thanh-Le Ha | Jan Niehues | Alexander Waibel
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation

In this paper, we present KIT’s multilingual neural machine translation (NMT) systems for the IWSLT 2017 evaluation campaign machine translation (MT) and spoken language translation (SLT) tasks. For our MT task submissions, we used our multi-task system, modified from a standard attentional neural machine translation framework, instead of building 20 individual NMT systems. We investigated different architectures as well as different data corpora in training such a multilingual system. We also suggested an effective adaptation scheme for multilingual systems which brings great improvements compared to monolingual systems. For the SLT track, in addition to a monolingual neural translation system used to generate correct punctuations and true cases of the data prior to training our multilingual system, we introduced a noise model in order to make our system more robust. Results show that our novel modifications improved our systems considerably on all tasks.

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Effective Strategies in Zero-Shot Neural Machine Translation
Thanh-Le Ha | Jan Niehues | Alexander Waibel
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation

In this paper, we proposed two strategies which can be applied to a multilingual neural machine translation system in order to better tackle zero-shot scenarios despite not having any parallel corpus. The experiments show that they are effective in terms of both performance and computing resources, especially in multilingual translation of unbalanced data in real zero-resourced condition when they alleviate the language bias problem.

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Analyzing Neural MT Search and Model Performance
Jan Niehues | Eunah Cho | Thanh-Le Ha | Alex Waibel
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Neural Machine Translation

In this paper, we offer an in-depth analysis about the modeling and search performance. We address the question if a more complex search algorithm is necessary. Furthermore, we investigate the question if more complex models which might only be applicable during rescoring are promising. By separating the search space and the modeling using n-best list reranking, we analyze the influence of both parts of an NMT system independently. By comparing differently performing NMT systems, we show that the better translation is already in the search space of the translation systems with less performance. This results indicate that the current search algorithms are sufficient for the NMT systems. Furthermore, we could show that even a relatively small n-best list of 50 hypotheses already contain notably better translations.

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The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Systems for the News Translation Task in WMT 2017
Ngoc-Quan Pham | Jan Niehues | Thanh-Le Ha | Eunah Cho | Matthias Sperber | Alexander Waibel
Proceedings of the Second Conference on Machine Translation

2016

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Using Factored Word Representation in Neural Network Language Models
Jan Niehues | Thanh-Le Ha | Eunah Cho | Alex Waibel
Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 1, Research Papers

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The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Systems for the News Translation Task in WMT 2016
Thanh-Le Ha | Eunah Cho | Jan Niehues | Mohammed Mediani | Matthias Sperber | Alexandre Allauzen | Alexander Waibel
Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 2, Shared Task Papers

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Pre-Translation for Neural Machine Translation
Jan Niehues | Eunah Cho | Thanh-Le Ha | Alex Waibel
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Recently, the development of neural machine translation (NMT) has significantly improved the translation quality of automatic machine translation. While most sentences are more accurate and fluent than translations by statistical machine translation (SMT)-based systems, in some cases, the NMT system produces translations that have a completely different meaning. This is especially the case when rare words occur. When using statistical machine translation, it has already been shown that significant gains can be achieved by simplifying the input in a preprocessing step. A commonly used example is the pre-reordering approach. In this work, we used phrase-based machine translation to pre-translate the input into the target language. Then a neural machine translation system generates the final hypothesis using the pre-translation. Thereby, we use either only the output of the phrase-based machine translation (PBMT) system or a combination of the PBMT output and the source sentence. We evaluate the technique on the English to German translation task. Using this approach we are able to outperform the PBMT system as well as the baseline neural MT system by up to 2 BLEU points. We analyzed the influence of the quality of the initial system on the final result.

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Lecture Translator - Speech translation framework for simultaneous lecture translation
Markus Müller | Thai Son Nguyen | Jan Niehues | Eunah Cho | Bastian Krüger | Thanh-Le Ha | Kevin Kilgour | Matthias Sperber | Mohammed Mediani | Sebastian Stüker | Alex Waibel
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Demonstrations

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Toward Multilingual Neural Machine Translation with Universal Encoder and Decoder
Thanh-Le Ha | Jan Niehues | Alex Waibel
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation

In this paper, we present our first attempts in building a multilingual Neural Machine Translation framework under a unified approach in which the information shared among languages can be helpful in the translation of individual language pairs. We are then able to employ attention-based Neural Machine Translation for many-to-many multilingual translation tasks. Our approach does not require any special treatment on the network architecture and it allows us to learn minimal number of free parameters in a standard way of training. Our approach has shown its effectiveness in an under-resourced translation scenario with considerable improvements up to 2.6 BLEU points. In addition, we point out a novel way to make use of monolingual data with Neural Machine Translation using the same approach with a 3.15-BLEU-score gain in IWSLT’16 English→German translation task.

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Multilingual Disfluency Removal using NMT
Eunah Cho | Jan Niehues | Thanh-Le Ha | Alex Waibel
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation

In this paper, we investigate a multilingual approach for speech disfluency removal. A major challenge of this task comes from the costly nature of disfluency annotation. Motivated by the fact that speech disfluencies are commonly observed throughout different languages, we investigate the potential of multilingual disfluency modeling. We suggest that learning a joint representation of the disfluencies in multiple languages can be a promising solution to the data sparsity issue. In this work, we utilize a multilingual neural machine translation system, where a disfluent speech transcript is directly transformed into a cleaned up text. Disfluency removal experiments on English and German speech transcripts show that multilingual disfluency modeling outperforms the single language systems. In a following experiment, we show that the improvements are also observed in a downstream application using the disfluency-removed transcripts as input.

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Adaptation and Combination of NMT Systems: The KIT Translation Systems for IWSLT 2016
Eunah Cho | Jan Niehues | Thanh-Le Ha | Matthias Sperber | Mohammed Mediani | Alex Waibel
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation

In this paper, we present the KIT systems of the IWSLT 2016 machine translation evaluation. We participated in the machine translation (MT) task as well as the spoken language language translation (SLT) track for English→German and German→English translation. We use attentional neural machine translation (NMT) for all our submissions. We investigated different methods to adapt the system using small in-domain data as well as methods to train the system on these small corpora. In addition, we investigated methods to combine NMT systems that encode the input as well as the output differently. We combine systems using different vocabularies, reverse translation systems, multi-source translation system. In addition, we used pre-translation systems that facilitate phrase-based machine translation systems. Results show that applying domain adaptation and ensemble technique brings a crucial improvement of 3-4 BLEU points over the baseline system. In addition, system combination using n-best lists yields further 1-2 BLEU points.

2015

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The KIT translation systems for IWSLT 2015
Thanh-Le Ha | Jan Niehues | Eunah Cho | Mohammed Mediani | Alex Waibel
Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

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The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Translation Systems for the WMT 2015
Eunah Cho | Thanh-Le Ha | Jan Niehues | Teresa Herrmann | Mohammed Mediani | Yuqi Zhang | Alex Waibel
Proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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The KIT-LIMSI Translation System for WMT 2015
Thanh-Le Ha | Quoc-Khanh Do | Eunah Cho | Jan Niehues | Alexandre Allauzen | François Yvon | Alex Waibel
Proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

2014

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The KIT translation systems for IWSLT 2014
Isabel Slawik | Mohammed Mediani | Jan Niehues | Yuqi Zhang | Eunah Cho | Teresa Herrmann | Thanh-Le Ha | Alex Waibel
Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

In this paper, we present the KIT systems participating in the TED translation tasks of the IWSLT 2014 machine translation evaluation. We submitted phrase-based translation systems for all three official directions, namely English→German, German→English, and English→French, as well as for the optional directions English→Chinese and English→Arabic. For the official directions we built systems both for the machine translation as well as the spoken language translation track. This year we improved our systems’ performance over last year through n-best list rescoring using neural network-based translation and language models and novel preordering rules based on tree information of multiple syntactic levels. Furthermore, we could successfully apply a novel phrase extraction algorithm and transliteration of unknown words for Arabic. We also submitted a contrastive system for German→English built with stemmed German adjectives. For the SLT tracks, we used a monolingual translation system to translate the lowercased ASR hypotheses with all punctuation stripped to truecased, punctuated output as a preprocessing step to our usual translation system.

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Lexical translation model using a deep neural network architecture
Thanh-Le Ha | Jan Niehues | Alex Waibel
Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Papers

In this paper we combine the advantages of a model using global source sentence contexts, the Discriminative Word Lexicon, and neural networks. By using deep neural networks instead of the linear maximum entropy model in the Discriminative Word Lexicon models, we are able to leverage dependencies between different source words due to the non-linearity. Furthermore, the models for different target words can share parameters and therefore data sparsity problems are effectively reduced. By using this approach in a state-of-the-art translation system, we can improve the performance by up to 0.5 BLEU points for three different language pairs on the TED translation task.

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The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Translation Systems for the WMT 2014
Teresa Herrmann | Mohammed Mediani | Eunah Cho | Thanh-Le Ha | Jan Niehues | Isabel Slawik | Yuqi Zhang | Alex Waibel
Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

2013

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EU-BRIDGE MT: text translation of talks in the EU-BRIDGE project
Markus Freitag | Stephan Peitz | Joern Wuebker | Hermann Ney | Nadir Durrani | Matthias Huck | Philipp Koehn | Thanh-Le Ha | Jan Niehues | Mohammed Mediani | Teresa Herrmann | Alex Waibel | Nicola Bertoldi | Mauro Cettolo | Marcello Federico
Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

EU-BRIDGE1 is a European research project which is aimed at developing innovative speech translation technology. This paper describes one of the collaborative efforts within EUBRIDGE to further advance the state of the art in machine translation between two European language pairs, English→French and German→English. Four research institutions involved in the EU-BRIDGE project combined their individual machine translation systems and participated with a joint setup in the machine translation track of the evaluation campaign at the 2013 International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT). We present the methods and techniques to achieve high translation quality for text translation of talks which are applied at RWTH Aachen University, the University of Edinburgh, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, and Fondazione Bruno Kessler. We then show how we have been able to considerably boost translation performance (as measured in terms of the metrics BLEU and TER) by means of system combination. The joint setups yield empirical gains of up to 1.4 points in BLEU and 2.8 points in TER on the IWSLT test sets compared to the best single systems.

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The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Translation Systems for the WMT 2013
Eunah Cho | Thanh-Le Ha | Mohammed Mediani | Jan Niehues | Teresa Herrmann | Isabel Slawik | Alex Waibel
Proceedings of the Eighth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

2012

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The KIT translation systems for IWSLT 2012
Mohammed Mediani | Yuqi Zhang | Thanh-Le Ha | Jan Niehues | Eunach Cho | Teresa Herrmann | Rainer Kärgel | Alexander Waibel
Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

In this paper, we present the KIT systems participating in the English-French TED Translation tasks in the framework of the IWSLT 2012 machine translation evaluation. We also present several additional experiments on the English-German, English-Chinese and English-Arabic translation pairs. Our system is a phrase-based statistical machine translation system, extended with many additional models which were proven to enhance the translation quality. For instance, it uses the part-of-speech (POS)-based reordering, translation and language model adaptation, bilingual language model, word-cluster language model, discriminative word lexica (DWL), and continuous space language model. In addition to this, the system incorporates special steps in the preprocessing and in the post-processing step. In the preprocessing the noisy corpora are filtered by removing the noisy sentence pairs, whereas in the postprocessing the agreement between a noun and its surrounding words in the French translation is corrected based on POS tags with morphological information. Our system deals with speech transcription input by removing case information and punctuation except periods from the text translation model.