Recent developments in machine translation and multilingual text generation have led researchers to adopt trained metrics such as COMET or BLEURT, which treat evaluation as a regression problem and use representations from multilingual pre-trained models such as XLM-RoBERTa or mBERT. Yet studies on related tasks suggest that these models are most efficient when they are large, which is costly and impractical for evaluation. We investigate the trade-off between multilinguality and model capacity with RemBERT, a state-of-the-art multilingual language model, using data from the WMT Metrics Shared Task. We present a series of experiments which show that model size is indeed a bottleneck for cross-lingual transfer, then demonstrate how distillation can help addressing this bottleneck, by leveraging synthetic data generation and transferring knowledge from one teacher to multiple students trained on related languages. Our method yields up to 10.5% improvement over vanilla fine-tuning and reaches 92.6% of RemBERT’s performance using only a third of its parameters.
We introduce GEM, a living benchmark for natural language Generation (NLG), its Evaluation, and Metrics. Measuring progress in NLG relies on a constantly evolving ecosystem of automated metrics, datasets, and human evaluation standards. Due to this moving target, new models often still evaluate on divergent anglo-centric corpora with well-established, but flawed, metrics. This disconnect makes it challenging to identify the limitations of current models and opportunities for progress. Addressing this limitation, GEM provides an environment in which models can easily be applied to a wide set of tasks and in which evaluation strategies can be tested. Regular updates to the benchmark will help NLG research become more multilingual and evolve the challenge alongside models. This paper serves as the description of the data for the 2021 shared task at the associated GEM Workshop.
We present a probabilistic framework for multilingual neural machine translation that encompasses supervised and unsupervised setups, focusing on unsupervised translation. In addition to studying the vanilla case where there is only monolingual data available, we propose a novel setup where one language in the (source, target) pair is not associated with any parallel data, but there may exist auxiliary parallel data that contains the other. This auxiliary data can naturally be utilized in our probabilistic framework via a novel cross-translation loss term. Empirically, we show that our approach results in higher BLEU scores over state-of-the-art unsupervised models on the WMT’14 English-French, WMT’16 English-German, and WMT’16 English-Romanian datasets in most directions.
The quality of machine translation systems has dramatically improved over the last decade, and as a result, evaluation has become an increasingly challenging problem. This paper describes our contribution to the WMT 2020 Metrics Shared Task, the main benchmark for automatic evaluation of translation. We make several submissions based on BLEURT, a previously published which uses transfer learning. We extend the metric beyond English and evaluate it on 14 language pairs for which fine-tuning data is available, as well as 4 “zero-shot” language pairs, for which we have no labelled examples. Additionally, we focus on English to German and demonstrate how to combine BLEURT’s predictions with those of YiSi and use alternative reference translations to enhance the performance. Empirical results show that the models achieve competitive results on the WMT Metrics 2019 Shared Task, indicating their promise for the 2020 edition.
Text generation has made significant advances in the last few years. Yet, evaluation metrics have lagged behind, as the most popular choices (e.g., BLEU and ROUGE) may correlate poorly with human judgment. We propose BLEURT, a learned evaluation metric for English based on BERT. BLEURT can model human judgment with a few thousand possibly biased training examples. A key aspect of our approach is a novel pre-training scheme that uses millions of synthetic examples to help the model generalize. BLEURT provides state-of-the-art results on the last three years of the WMT Metrics shared task and the WebNLG data set. In contrast to a vanilla BERT-based approach, it yields superior results even when the training data is scarce and out-of-distribution.