Cross-lingual word embeddings (CLWE) have been proven useful in many cross-lingual tasks. However, most existing approaches to learn CLWE including the ones with contextual embeddings are sense agnostic. In this work, we propose a novel framework to align contextual embeddings at the sense level by leveraging cross-lingual signal from bilingual dictionaries only. We operationalize our framework by first proposing a novel sense-aware cross entropy loss to model word senses explicitly. The monolingual ELMo and BERT models pretrained with our sense-aware cross entropy loss demonstrate significant performance improvement for word sense disambiguation tasks. We then propose a sense alignment objective on top of the sense-aware cross entropy loss for cross-lingual model pretraining, and pretrain cross-lingual models for several language pairs (English to German/Spanish/Japanese/Chinese). Compared with the best baseline results, our cross-lingual models achieve 0.52%, 2.09% and 1.29% average performance improvements on zero-shot cross-lingual NER, sentiment classification and XNLI tasks, respectively.
Exploiting sentence-level labels, which are easy to obtain, is one of the plausible methods to improve low-resource named entity recognition (NER), where token-level labels are costly to annotate. Current models for jointly learning sentence and token labeling are limited to binary classification. We present a joint model that supports multi-class classification and introduce a simple variant of self-attention that allows the model to learn scaling factors. Our model produces 3.78%, 4.20%, 2.08% improvements in F1 over the BiLSTM-CRF baseline on e-commerce product titles in three different low-resource languages: Vietnamese, Thai, and Indonesian, respectively.
Data augmentation techniques have been widely used to improve machine learning performance as they facilitate generalization. In this work, we propose a novel augmentation method to generate high quality synthetic data for low-resource tagging tasks with language models trained on the linearized labeled sentences. Our method is applicable to both supervised and semi-supervised settings. For the supervised settings, we conduct extensive experiments on named entity recognition (NER), part of speech (POS) tagging and end-to-end target based sentiment analysis (E2E-TBSA) tasks. For the semi-supervised settings, we evaluate our method on the NER task under the conditions of given unlabeled data only and unlabeled data plus a knowledge base. The results show that our method can consistently outperform the baselines, particularly when the given gold training data are less.