Thomas Troelsgård


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Reusing the Danish WordNet for a New Central Word Register for Danish - a Project Report
Bolette Pedersen | Sanni Nimb | Nathalie Sørensen | Sussi Olsen | Ida Flörke | Thomas Troelsgård
Proceedings of the 12th Global Wordnet Conference

In this paper we report on a new Danish lexical initiative, the Central Word Register for Danish, (COR), which aims at providing an open-source, well curated and large-coverage lexicon for AI purposes. The semantic part of the lexicon (COR-S) relies to a large extent on the lexical-semantic information provided in the Danish wordnet, DanNet. However, we have taken the opportunity to evaluate and curate the wordnet information while compiling the new resource. Some information types have been simplified and more systematically curated. This is the case for the hyponymy relations, the ontological typing, and the sense inventory, i.e. the treatment of polysemy, including systematic polysemy.

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Towards an RDF Representation of the Infrastructure consisting in using Wordnets as a conceptual Interlingua between multilingual Sign Language Datasets
Thierry Declerck | Thomas Troelsgård | Sussi Olsen
Proceedings of the 12th Global Wordnet Conference

We present ongoing work dealing with a Linked Data compliant representation of infrastructures using wordnets for connecting multilingual Sign Language data sets. We build for this on already existing RDF and OntoLex representations of Open Multilingual Wordnet (OMW) data sets and work done by the European EASIER research project on the use of the CSV files of OMW for linking glosses and basic semantic information associated with Sign Language data sets in two languages: German and Greek. In this context, we started the transformation into RDF of a Danish data set, which links Danish Sign Language data and the wordnet for Danish, DanNet. The final objective of our work is to include Sign Language data sets (and their conceptual cross-linking via wordnets) in the Linguistic Linked Open Data cloud.

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The DA-ELEXIS Corpus - a Sense-Annotated Corpus for Danish with Parallel Annotations for Nine European Languages
Bolette Pedersen | Sanni Nimb | Sussi Olsen | Thomas Troelsgård | Ida Flörke | Jonas Jensen | Henrik Lorentzen
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Resources and Representations for Under-Resourced Languages and Domains (RESOURCEFUL-2023)

In this paper, we present the newly compiled DA-ELEXIS Corpus, which is one of the largest sense-annotated corpora available for Danish, and the first one to be annotated with the Danish wordnet, DanNet. The corpus is part of a European initiative, the ELEXIS project, and has corresponding parallel annotations in nine other European languages. As such it functions as a cross-lingual evaluative benchmark for a series of low and medium resourced European language. We focus here on the Danish annotation process, i.e. on the annotation scheme including annotation guidelines and a primary sense inventory constituted by DanNet as well as the fall-back sense inventory namely The Danish Dictionary (DDO). We analyse and discuss issues such as out of vocabulary (OOV) problems, problems with sense granularity and missing senses (in particular for verbs), and how to semantically tag multiword expressions (MWE), which prove to occur very frequently in the Danish corpus. Finally, we calculate the inter-annotator agreement (IAA) and show how IAA has improved during the annotation process. The openly available corpus contains 32,524 tokens of which sense annotations are given for all content words, amounting to 7,322 nouns, 3,099 verbs, 2,626 adjectives, and 1,677 adverbs.


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Compiling a Suitable Level of Sense Granularity in a Lexicon for AI Purposes: The Open Source COR Lexicon
Bolette Pedersen | Nathalie Carmen Hau Sørensen | Sanni Nimb | Ida Flørke | Sussi Olsen | Thomas Troelsgård
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

We present The Central Word Register for Danish (COR), which is an open source lexicon project for general AI purposes funded and initiated by the Danish Agency for Digitisation as part of an AI initiative embarked by the Danish Government in 2020. We focus here on the lexical semantic part of the project (COR-S) and describe how we – based on the existing fine-grained sense inventory from Den Danske Ordbog (DDO) – compile a more AI suitable sense granularity level of the vocabulary. A three-step methodology is applied: We establish a set of linguistic principles for defining core senses in COR-S and from there, we generate a hand-crafted gold standard of 6,000 lemmas depicting how to come from the fine-grained DDO sense to the COR inventory. Finally, we experiment with a number of language models in order to automatize the sense reduction of the rest of the lexicon. The models comprise a ruled-based model that applies our linguistic principles in terms of features, a word2vec model using cosine similarity to measure the sense proximity, and finally a deep neural BERT model fine-tuned on our annotations. The rule-based approach shows best results, in particular on adjectives, however, when focusing on the average polysemous vocabulary, the BERT model shows promising results too.

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A Thesaurus-based Sentiment Lexicon for Danish: The Danish Sentiment Lexicon
Sanni Nimb | Sussi Olsen | Bolette Pedersen | Thomas Troelsgård
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

This paper describes how a newly published Danish sentiment lexicon with a high lexical coverage was compiled by use of lexicographic methods and based on the links between groups of words listed in semantic order in a thesaurus and the corresponding word sense descriptions in a comprehensive monolingual dictionary. The overall idea was to identify negative and positive sections in a thesaurus, extract the words from these sections and combine them with the dictionary information via the links. The annotation task of the dataset included several steps, and was based on the comparison of synonyms and near synonyms within a semantic field. In the cases where one of the words were included in the smaller Danish sentiment lexicon AFINN, its value there was used as inspiration and expanded to the synonyms when appropriate. In order to obtain a more practical lexicon with overall polarity values at lemma level, all the senses of the lemma were afterwards compared, taking into consideration dictionary information such as usage, style and frequency. The final lexicon contains 13,859 Danish polarity lemmas and includes morphological information. It is freely available at (licence CC-BY-SA 4.0 International).


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An automatically generated Danish Renaissance Dictionary
Mette-Marie Møller Svendsen | Nicolai Hartvig Sørensen | Thomas Troelsgård
Proceedings of the 2020 Globalex Workshop on Linked Lexicography

We present the ongoing work on an automatically generated dictionary describing Danish in the 16th century. A series of relevant dictionaries – from the period as well as more recent ones – are linked together at lemma level, and where possible, definitions or keywords are extracted and presented in the new dictionary.

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A Multilingual Evaluation Dataset for Monolingual Word Sense Alignment
Sina Ahmadi | John Philip McCrae | Sanni Nimb | Fahad Khan | Monica Monachini | Bolette Pedersen | Thierry Declerck | Tanja Wissik | Andrea Bellandi | Irene Pisani | Thomas Troelsgård | Sussi Olsen | Simon Krek | Veronika Lipp | Tamás Váradi | László Simon | András Gyorffy | Carole Tiberius | Tanneke Schoonheim | Yifat Ben Moshe | Maya Rudich | Raya Abu Ahmad | Dorielle Lonke | Kira Kovalenko | Margit Langemets | Jelena Kallas | Oksana Dereza | Theodorus Fransen | David Cillessen | David Lindemann | Mikel Alonso | Ana Salgado | José Luis Sancho | Rafael-J. Ureña-Ruiz | Jordi Porta Zamorano | Kiril Simov | Petya Osenova | Zara Kancheva | Ivaylo Radev | Ranka Stanković | Andrej Perdih | Dejan Gabrovsek
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Aligning senses across resources and languages is a challenging task with beneficial applications in the field of natural language processing and electronic lexicography. In this paper, we describe our efforts in manually aligning monolingual dictionaries. The alignment is carried out at sense-level for various resources in 15 languages. Moreover, senses are annotated with possible semantic relationships such as broadness, narrowness, relatedness, and equivalence. In comparison to previous datasets for this task, this dataset covers a wide range of languages and resources and focuses on the more challenging task of linking general-purpose language. We believe that our data will pave the way for further advances in alignment and evaluation of word senses by creating new solutions, particularly those notoriously requiring data such as neural networks. Our resources are publicly available at