We present The Central Word Register for Danish (COR), which is an open source lexicon project for general AI purposes funded and initiated by the Danish Agency for Digitisation as part of an AI initiative embarked by the Danish Government in 2020. We focus here on the lexical semantic part of the project (COR-S) and describe how we – based on the existing fine-grained sense inventory from Den Danske Ordbog (DDO) – compile a more AI suitable sense granularity level of the vocabulary. A three-step methodology is applied: We establish a set of linguistic principles for defining core senses in COR-S and from there, we generate a hand-crafted gold standard of 6,000 lemmas depicting how to come from the fine-grained DDO sense to the COR inventory. Finally, we experiment with a number of language models in order to automatize the sense reduction of the rest of the lexicon. The models comprise a ruled-based model that applies our linguistic principles in terms of features, a word2vec model using cosine similarity to measure the sense proximity, and finally a deep neural BERT model fine-tuned on our annotations. The rule-based approach shows best results, in particular on adjectives, however, when focusing on the average polysemous vocabulary, the BERT model shows promising results too.
This paper describes how a newly published Danish sentiment lexicon with a high lexical coverage was compiled by use of lexicographic methods and based on the links between groups of words listed in semantic order in a thesaurus and the corresponding word sense descriptions in a comprehensive monolingual dictionary. The overall idea was to identify negative and positive sections in a thesaurus, extract the words from these sections and combine them with the dictionary information via the links. The annotation task of the dataset included several steps, and was based on the comparison of synonyms and near synonyms within a semantic field. In the cases where one of the words were included in the smaller Danish sentiment lexicon AFINN, its value there was used as inspiration and expanded to the synonyms when appropriate. In order to obtain a more practical lexicon with overall polarity values at lemma level, all the senses of the lemma were afterwards compared, taking into consideration dictionary information such as usage, style and frequency. The final lexicon contains 13,859 Danish polarity lemmas and includes morphological information. It is freely available at https://github.com/dsldk/danish-sentiment-lexicon (licence CC-BY-SA 4.0 International).
We present the ongoing work on an automatically generated dictionary describing Danish in the 16th century. A series of relevant dictionaries – from the period as well as more recent ones – are linked together at lemma level, and where possible, definitions or keywords are extracted and presented in the new dictionary.
Aligning senses across resources and languages is a challenging task with beneficial applications in the field of natural language processing and electronic lexicography. In this paper, we describe our efforts in manually aligning monolingual dictionaries. The alignment is carried out at sense-level for various resources in 15 languages. Moreover, senses are annotated with possible semantic relationships such as broadness, narrowness, relatedness, and equivalence. In comparison to previous datasets for this task, this dataset covers a wide range of languages and resources and focuses on the more challenging task of linking general-purpose language. We believe that our data will pave the way for further advances in alignment and evaluation of word senses by creating new solutions, particularly those notoriously requiring data such as neural networks. Our resources are publicly available at https://github.com/elexis-eu/MWSA.