Compare to The Knowledge: Graph Neural Fake News Detection with External Knowledge
Linmei Hu | Tianchi Yang | Luhao Zhang | Wanjun Zhong | Duyu Tang | Chuan Shi | Nan Duan | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)
Nowadays, fake news detection, which aims to verify whether a news document is trusted or fake, has become urgent and important. Most existing methods rely heavily on linguistic and semantic features from the news content, and fail to effectively exploit external knowledge which could help determine whether the news document is trusted. In this paper, we propose a novel end-to-end graph neural model called CompareNet, which compares the news to the knowledge base (KB) through entities for fake news detection. Considering that fake news detection is correlated with topics, we also incorporate topics to enrich the news representation. Specifically, we first construct a directed heterogeneous document graph for each news incorporating topics and entities. Based on the graph, we develop a heterogeneous graph attention network for learning the topic-enriched news representation as well as the contextual entity representations that encode the semantics of the news content. The contextual entity representations are then compared to the corresponding KB-based entity representations through a carefully designed entity comparison network, to capture the consistency between the news content and KB. Finally, the topic-enriched news representation combining the entity comparison features is fed into a fake news classifier. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets demonstrate that CompareNet significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods.
Heterogeneous Graph Attention Networks for Semi-supervised Short Text Classification
Hu Linmei | Tianchi Yang | Chuan Shi | Houye Ji | Xiaoli Li
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)
Short text classification has found rich and critical applications in news and tweet tagging to help users find relevant information. Due to lack of labeled training data in many practical use cases, there is a pressing need for studying semi-supervised short text classification. Most existing studies focus on long texts and achieve unsatisfactory performance on short texts due to the sparsity and limited labeled data. In this paper, we propose a novel heterogeneous graph neural network based method for semi-supervised short text classification, leveraging full advantage of few labeled data and large unlabeled data through information propagation along the graph. In particular, we first present a flexible HIN (heterogeneous information network) framework for modeling the short texts, which can integrate any type of additional information as well as capture their relations to address the semantic sparsity. Then, we propose Heterogeneous Graph ATtention networks (HGAT) to embed the HIN for short text classification based on a dual-level attention mechanism, including node-level and type-level attentions. The attention mechanism can learn the importance of different neighboring nodes as well as the importance of different node (information) types to a current node. Extensive experimental results have demonstrated that our proposed model outperforms state-of-the-art methods across six benchmark datasets significantly.