Tianyi Li


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Smoothing Entailment Graphs with Language Models
Nick McKenna | Tianyi Li | Mark Johnson | Mark Steedman
Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing and the 3rd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Align-then-Enhance: Multilingual Entailment Graph Enhancement with Soft Predicate Alignment
Yuting Wu | Yutong Hu | Yansong Feng | Tianyi Li | Mark Steedman | Dongyan Zhao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Entailment graphs (EGs) with predicates as nodes and entailment relations as edges are typically incomplete, while EGs in different languages are often complementary to each other. In this paper, we propose a new task, multilingual entailment graph enhancement, which aims to utilize the entailment information from one EG to enhance another EG in a different language. The ultimate goal is to obtain an enhanced EG containing richer and more accurate entailment information. We present an align-then-enhance framework (ATE) to achieve accurate multilingual entailment graph enhancement, which first exploits a cross-graph guided interaction mechanism to automatically discover potential equivalent predicates between different EGs and then constructs more accurate enhanced entailment graphs based on soft predicate alignments. Extensive experiments show that ATE achieves better and more robust predicate alignment results between different EGs, and the enhanced entailment graphs generated by ATE outperform the original graphs for entailment detection.

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Sources of Hallucination by Large Language Models on Inference Tasks
Nick McKenna | Tianyi Li | Liang Cheng | Mohammad Hosseini | Mark Johnson | Mark Steedman
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Large Language Models (LLMs) are claimed to be capable of Natural Language Inference (NLI), necessary for applied tasks like question answering and summarization. We present a series of behavioral studies on several LLM families (LLaMA, GPT-3.5, and PaLM) which probe their behavior using controlled experiments. We establish two biases originating from pretraining which predict much of their behavior, and show that these are major sources of hallucination in generative LLMs. First, memorization at the level of sentences: we show that, regardless of the premise, models falsely label NLI test samples as entailing when the hypothesis is attested in training data, and that entities are used as “indices’ to access the memorized data. Second, statistical patterns of usage learned at the level of corpora: we further show a similar effect when the premise predicate is less frequent than that of the hypothesis in the training data, a bias following from previous studies. We demonstrate that LLMs perform significantly worse on NLI test samples which do not conform to these biases than those which do, and we offer these as valuable controls for future LLM evaluation.


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Cross-lingual Inference with A Chinese Entailment Graph
Tianyi Li | Sabine Weber | Mohammad Javad Hosseini | Liane Guillou | Mark Steedman
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Predicate entailment detection is a crucial task for question-answering from text, where previous work has explored unsupervised learning of entailment graphs from typed open relation triples. In this paper, we present the first pipeline for building Chinese entailment graphs, which involves a novel high-recall open relation extraction (ORE) method and the first Chinese fine-grained entity typing dataset under the FIGER type ontology. Through experiments on the Levy-Holt dataset, we verify the strength of our Chinese entailment graph, and reveal the cross-lingual complementarity: on the parallel Levy-Holt dataset, an ensemble of Chinese and English entailment graphs outperforms both monolingual graphs, and raises unsupervised SOTA by 4.7 AUC points.

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Language Models Are Poor Learners of Directional Inference
Tianyi Li | Mohammad Javad Hosseini | Sabine Weber | Mark Steedman
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

We examine LMs’ competence of directional predicate entailments by supervised fine-tuning with prompts. Our analysis shows that contrary to their apparent success on standard NLI, LMs show limited ability to learn such directional inference; moreover, existing datasets fail to test directionality, and/or are infested by artefacts that can be learnt as proxy for entailments, yielding over-optimistic results. In response, we present BoOQA (Boolean Open QA), a robust multi-lingual evaluation benchmark for directional predicate entailments, extrinsic to existing training sets. On BoOQA, we establish baselines and show evidence of existing LM-prompting models being incompetent directional entailment learners, in contrast to entailment graphs, however limited by sparsity.


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Semi-Automatic Construction of Text-to-SQL Data for Domain Transfer
Tianyi Li | Sujian Li | Mark Steedman
Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Parsing Technologies and the IWPT 2021 Shared Task on Parsing into Enhanced Universal Dependencies (IWPT 2021)

Strong and affordable in-domain data is a desirable asset when transferring trained semantic parsers to novel domains. As previous methods for semi-automatically constructing such data cannot handle the complexity of realistic SQL queries, we propose to construct SQL queries via context-dependent sampling, and introduce the concept of topic. Along with our SQL query construction method, we propose a novel pipeline of semi-automatic Text-to-SQL dataset construction that covers the broad space of SQL queries. We show that the created dataset is comparable with expert annotation along multiple dimensions, and is capable of improving domain transfer performance for SOTA semantic parsers.


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Refining Data for Text Generation
Qianying Liu | Tianyi Li | Wenyu Guan | Sujian Li
Proceedings of the 19th Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics

Recent work on data-to-text generation has made progress under the neural encoder-decoder architectures. However, the data input size is often enormous, while not all data records are important for text generation and inappropriate input may bring noise into the final output. To solve this problem, we propose a two-step approach which first selects and orders the important data records and then generates text from the noise-reduced data. Here we propose a learning to rank model to rank the importance of each record which is supervised by a relation extractor. With the noise-reduced data as input, we implement a text generator which sequentially models the input data records and emits a summary. Experiments on the ROTOWIRE dataset verifies the effectiveness of our proposed method in both performance and efficiency.


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Incorporating Textual Evidence in Visual Storytelling
Tianyi Li | Sujian Li
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Discourse Structure in Neural NLG

Previous work on visual storytelling mainly focused on exploring image sequence as evidence for storytelling and neglected textual evidence for guiding story generation. Motivated by human storytelling process which recalls stories for familiar images, we exploit textual evidence from similar images to help generate coherent and meaningful stories. To pick the images which may provide textual experience, we propose a two-step ranking method based on image object recognition techniques. To utilize textual information, we design an extended Seq2Seq model with two-channel encoder and attention. Experiments on the VIST dataset show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art baseline models without heavy engineering.