Tianyi Zhang


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When Do Pre-Training Biases Propagate to Downstream Tasks? A Case Study in Text Summarization
Faisal Ladhak | Esin Durmus | Mirac Suzgun | Tianyi Zhang | Dan Jurafsky | Kathleen McKeown | Tatsunori Hashimoto
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Large language models (LLMs) are subject to sociocultural and other biases previously identified using intrinsic evaluations. However, when and how these intrinsic biases in pre-trained LM representations propagate to downstream, fine-tuned NLP tasks like summarization is not well understood. In this work, we investigate one type of bias—name-nationality bias—and trace it from the pre-training stage to a downstream summarization task across multiple summarization modeling choices. We show that these biases manifest themselves as hallucinations in summarization, leading to factually incorrect summaries. We also find that this propagation of biases is algorithm-dependent: more abstractive models allow biases to propagate more directly to downstream tasks as hallucinated facts. Building on these observations, we further analyze how changes to the adaptation method and fine-tuning data set affect name nationality biases and show that while they can reduce the overall rate of hallucinations, they do not change the types of biases that do appear.

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TempLM: Distilling Language Models into Template-Based Generators
Tianyi Zhang | Mina Lee | Xiang Lisa Li | Ende Shen | Tatsunori Hashimoto
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

While pretrained language models (PLMs) have greatly improved text generation, they have also been known to produce unfaithful or inappropriate content. In contrast, classic template-based systems provide strong guarantees of faithfulness at the cost of fluency. We propose TempLM, which achieves the best of both worlds by distilling a PLM into a template-based generator. On the E2E and SynthBio data-to-text datasets, we show that TempLM is more faithful than the original PLM and is more fluent than prior template systems. Notably, on an out-of-domain evaluation, TempLM reduces a finetuned BART model’s unfaithfulness rate from 83% to 0%. In a human study, we find that TempLM’s templates substantially improve upon human-written ones in BERTScore.

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Evaluating Verifiability in Generative Search Engines
Nelson Liu | Tianyi Zhang | Percy Liang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Generative search engines directly generate responses to user queries, along with in-line citations. A prerequisite trait of a trustworthy generative search engine is verifiability, i.e., systems should cite comprehensively (high citation recall; all statements are fully supported by citations) and accurately (high citation precision; every cite supports its associated statement). We conduct human evaluation to audit four popular generative search engines—Bing Chat, NeevaAI, perplexity.ai, and YouChat—across a diverse set of queries from a variety of sources (e.g., historical Google user queries, dynamically-collected open-ended questions on Reddit, etc.). We find that responses from existing generative search engines are fluent and appear informative, but frequently contain unsupported statements and inaccurate citations: on average, a mere 51.5% of generated sentences are fully supported by citations and only 74.5% of citations support their associated sentence. We believe that these results are concerningly low for systems that may serve as a primary tool for information-seeking users, especially given their facade of trustworthiness. We hope that our results further motivate the development of trustworthy generative search engines and help researchers and users better understand the shortcomings of existing commercial systems.

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Interactive Text-to-SQL Generation via Editable Step-by-Step Explanations
Yuan Tian | Zheng Zhang | Zheng Ning | Toby Li | Jonathan K. Kummerfeld | Tianyi Zhang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Relational databases play an important role in business, science, and more. However, many users cannot fully unleash the analytical power of relational databases, because they are not familiar with database languages such as SQL. Many techniques have been proposed to automatically generate SQL from natural language, but they suffer from two issues: (1) they still make many mistakes, particularly for complex queries, and (2) they do not provide a flexible way for non-expert users to validate and refine incorrect queries. To address these issues, we introduce a new interaction mechanism that allows users to directly edit a step-by-step explanation of a query to fix errors. Our experiments on multiple datasets, as well as a user study with 24 participants, demonstrate that our approach can achieve better performance than multiple SOTA approaches. Our code and datasets are available at https://github.com/magic-YuanTian/STEPS.

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Human-in-the-loop Schema Induction
Tianyi Zhang | Isaac Tham | Zhaoyi Hou | Jiaxuan Ren | Leon Zhou | Hainiu Xu | Li Zhang | Lara J. Martin | Rotem Dror | Sha Li | Heng Ji | Martha Palmer | Susan Windisch Brown | Reece Suchocki | Chris Callison-Burch
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 3: System Demonstrations)

Schema induction builds a graph representation explaining how events unfold in a scenario. Existing approaches have been based on information retrieval (IR) and information extraction (IE), often with limited human curation. We demonstrate a human-in-the-loop schema induction system powered by GPT-3. We first describe the different modules of our system, including prompting to generate schematic elements, manual edit of those elements, and conversion of those into a schema graph. By qualitatively comparing our system to previous ones, we show that our system not only transfers to new domains more easily than previous approaches, but also reduces efforts of human curation thanks to our interactive interface.


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Structural Contrastive Representation Learning for Zero-shot Multi-label Text Classification
Tianyi Zhang | Zhaozhuo Xu | Tharun Medini | Anshumali Shrivastava
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Zero-shot multi-label text classification (ZMTC) is a fundamental task in natural language processing with applications in the cold start problem of recommendation systems. Ideally, one would learn an expressive representation of both input text and label features so that ZMTC is transformed into a nearest neighbor search problem. However, the existing representation learning approaches for ZMTC struggle with accuracy as well as poor training efficiency. Firstly, the input text is structural, consisting of both short title sentences and long content paragraphs. It is challenging to model the correlation between short label descriptions and long structural input documents. Secondly, the enormous label space in ZMTC forces the existing approaches to perform multi-stage learning with label engineering. As a result, the training overhead is significant. In this paper, we address both problems by introducing an end-to-end structural contrastive representation learning approach. We propose a randomized text segmentation (RTS) technique to generate high-quality contrastive pairs. This RTS technique allows us to model title-content correlation. Additionally, we simplify the multi-stage ZMTC learning strategy by avoiding label engineering. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our approach leads to up to 2.33% improvement in precision@1 and 5.94x speedup in training time on publicly available datasets. Our code is available publicly.

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LADIS: Language Disentanglement for 3D Shape Editing
Ian Huang | Panos Achlioptas | Tianyi Zhang | Sergei Tulyakov | Minhyuk Sung | Leonidas Guibas
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Natural language interaction is a promising direction for democratizing 3D shape design. However, existing methods for text-driven 3D shape editing face challenges in producing decoupled, local edits to 3D shapes. We address this problem by learning disentangled latent representations that ground language in 3D geometry. To this end, we propose a complementary tool set including a novel network architecture, a disentanglement loss, and a new editing procedure. Additionally, to measure edit locality, we define a new metric that we call part-wise edit precision. We show that our method outperforms existing SOTA methods by 20% in terms of edit locality, and up to 6.6% in terms of language reference resolution accuracy. Human evaluations additionally show that compared to the existing SOTA, our method produces shape edits that are more local, more semantically accurate, and more visually obvious. Our work suggests that by solely disentangling language representations, downstream 3D shape editing can become more local to relevant parts, even if the model was never given explicit part-based supervision.

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CREATIVESUMM: Shared Task on Automatic Summarization for Creative Writing
Divyansh Agarwal | Alexander R. Fabbri | Simeng Han | Wojciech Kryscinski | Faisal Ladhak | Bryan Li | Kathleen McKeown | Dragomir Radev | Tianyi Zhang | Sam Wiseman
Proceedings of The Workshop on Automatic Summarization for Creative Writing

This paper introduces the shared task of summrizing documents in several creative domains, namely literary texts, movie scripts, and television scripts. Summarizing these creative documents requires making complex literary interpretations, as well as understanding non-trivial temporal dependencies in texts containing varied styles of plot development and narrative structure. This poses unique challenges and is yet underexplored for text summarization systems. In this shared task, we introduce four sub-tasks and their corresponding datasets, focusing on summarizing books, movie scripts, primetime television scripts, and daytime soap opera scripts. We detail the process of curating these datasets for the task, as well as the metrics used for the evaluation of the submissions. As part of the CREATIVESUMM workshop at COLING 2022, the shared task attracted 18 submissions in total. We discuss the submissions and the baselines for each sub-task in this paper, along with directions for facilitating future work.


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On the Inductive Bias of Masked Language Modeling: From Statistical to Syntactic Dependencies
Tianyi Zhang | Tatsunori B. Hashimoto
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

We study how masking and predicting tokens in an unsupervised fashion can give rise to linguistic structures and downstream performance gains. Recent theories have suggested that pretrained language models acquire useful inductive biases through masks that implicitly act as cloze reductions for downstream tasks. While appealing, we show that the success of the random masking strategy used in practice cannot be explained by such cloze-like masks alone. We construct cloze-like masks using task-specific lexicons for three different classification datasets and show that the majority of pretrained performance gains come from generic masks that are not associated with the lexicon. To explain the empirical success of these generic masks, we demonstrate a correspondence between the Masked Language Model (MLM) objective and existing methods for learning statistical dependencies in graphical models. Using this, we derive a method for extracting these learned statistical dependencies in MLMs and show that these dependencies encode useful inductive biases in the form of syntactic structures. In an unsupervised parsing evaluation, simply forming a minimum spanning tree on the implied statistical dependence structure outperforms a classic method for unsupervised parsing (58.74 vs. 55.91 UUAS).