Tieyun Qian


2023

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On the Strength of Sequence Labeling and Generative Models for Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction
Shen Zhou | Tieyun Qian
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Generative models have achieved great success in aspect sentiment triplet extraction tasks. However, existing methods ignore the mutual informative clues between aspect and opinion terms and may generate false paired triplets. Furthermore, the inherent limitations of generative models, i.e., the token-by-token decoding and the simple structured prompt, prevent models from handling complex structures especially multi-word terms and multi-triplet sentences. To address these issues, we propose a sequence labeling enhanced generative model. Firstly, we encode the dependency between aspect and opinion into two bidirectional templates to avoid false paired triplets. Secondly, we introduce a marker-oriented sequence labeling module to improve generative models’ ability of tackling complex structures. Specifically, this module enables the generative model to capture the boundary information of aspect/opinion spans and provides hints to decode multiple triplets with the shared marker. Experimental results on four datasets prove that our model yields a new state-of-art performance. Our code and data are available at https://github.com/NLPWM-WHU/SLGM.

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Type-Aware Decomposed Framework for Few-Shot Named Entity Recognition
Yongqi Li | Yu Yu | Tieyun Qian
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Despite the recent success achieved by several two-stage prototypical networks in few-shot named entity recognition (NER) task, the over-detected false spans at span detection stage and the inaccurate and unstable prototypes at type classification stage remain to be challenging problems. In this paper, we propose a novel Type-Aware Decomposed framework, namely TadNER, to solve these problems. We first present a type-aware span filtering strategy to filter out false spans by removing those semantically far away from type names. We then present a type-aware contrastive learning strategy to construct more accurate and stable prototypes by jointly exploiting support samples and type names as references. Extensive experiments on various benchmarks prove that our proposed TadNER framework yields a new state-of-the-art performance.

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Dynamic Open-book Prompt for Conversational Recommender System
Xuan Ma | Tieyun Qian | Ke Sun
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Conversational Recommender System (CRS) aims to deliver personalized recommendations through interactive dialogues. Recent advances in prompt learning have shed light on this task. However, the performance of existing methods is confined by the limited context within ongoing conversations. Moreover, these methods utilize training samples only for prompt parameter training. The constructed prompt lacks the ability to refer to the training data during inference, which exacerbates the problem of limited context. To solve this problem, we propose a novel Dynamic Open-book Prompt approach, where the open book stores users’ experiences in historical data, and we dynamically construct the prompt to memorize the user’s current utterance and selectively retrieve relevant contexts from the open book. Specifically, we first build an item-recommendation graph from the open book and convolute on the graph to form a base prompt which contains more information besides the finite dialogue. Then, we enhance the representation learning process of the prompt by tailoring similar contexts in the graph into the prompt to meet the user’s current need. This ensures the prompt provides targeted suggestions that are both informed and contextually relevant. Extensive experimental results on the ReDial dataset demonstrate the significant improvements achieved by our proposed model over the state-of-the-art methods. Our code and data are available at https://github.com/NLPWM-WHU/DOP.

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Generating Commonsense Counterfactuals for Stable Relation Extraction
Xin Miao | Yongqi Li | Tieyun Qian
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent studies on counterfactual augmented data have achieved great success in the coarse-grained natural language processing tasks. However, existing methods encounter two major problems when dealing with the fine-grained relation extraction tasks. One is that they struggle to accurately identify causal terms under the invariant entity constraint. The other is that they ignore the commonsense constraint. To solve these problems, we propose a novel framework to generate commonsense counterfactuals for stable relation extraction. Specifically, to identify causal terms accurately, we introduce an intervention-based strategy and leverage a constituency parser for correction. To satisfy the commonsense constraint, we introduce the concept knowledge base WordNet and design a bottom-up relation expansion algorithm on it to uncover commonsense relations between entities. We conduct a series of comprehensive evaluations, including the low-resource, out-of-domain, and adversarial-attack settings. The results demonstrate that our framework significantly enhances the stability of base relation extraction models.

2022

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Graph-based Model Generation for Few-Shot Relation Extraction
Wanli Li | Tieyun Qian
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Few-shot relation extraction (FSRE) has been a challenging problem since it only has a handful of training instances. Existing models follow a ‘one-for-all’ scheme where one general large model performs all individual N-way-K-shot tasks in FSRE, which prevents the model from achieving the optimal point on each task. In view of this, we propose a model generation framework that consists of one general model for all tasks and many tiny task-specific models for each individual task. The general model generates and passes the universal knowledge to the tiny models which will be further fine-tuned when performing specific tasks. In this way, we decouple the complexity of the entire task space from that of all individual tasks while absorbing the universal knowledge. Extensive experimental results on two public datasets demonstrate that our framework reaches a new state-of-the-art performance for FRSE tasks. Our code is available at: https://github.com/NLPWM-WHU/GM_GEN.

2021

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Bridge-Based Active Domain Adaptation for Aspect Term Extraction
Zhuang Chen | Tieyun Qian
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

As a fine-grained task, the annotation cost of aspect term extraction is extremely high. Recent attempts alleviate this issue using domain adaptation that transfers common knowledge across domains. Since most aspect terms are domain-specific, they cannot be transferred directly. Existing methods solve this problem by associating aspect terms with pivot words (we call this passive domain adaptation because the transfer of aspect terms relies on the links to pivots). However, all these methods need either manually labeled pivot words or expensive computing resources to build associations. In this paper, we propose a novel active domain adaptation method. Our goal is to transfer aspect terms by actively supplementing transferable knowledge. To this end, we construct syntactic bridges by recognizing syntactic roles as pivots instead of as links to pivots. We also build semantic bridges by retrieving transferable semantic prototypes. Extensive experiments show that our method significantly outperforms previous approaches.

2020

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Enhancing Aspect Term Extraction with Soft Prototypes
Zhuang Chen | Tieyun Qian
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Aspect term extraction (ATE) aims to extract aspect terms from a review sentence that users have expressed opinions on. Existing studies mostly focus on designing neural sequence taggers to extract linguistic features from the token level. However, since the aspect terms and context words usually exhibit long-tail distributions, these taggers often converge to an inferior state without enough sample exposure. In this paper, we propose to tackle this problem by correlating words with each other through soft prototypes. These prototypes, generated by a soft retrieval process, can introduce global knowledge from internal or external data and serve as the supporting evidence for discovering the aspect terms. Our proposed model is a general framework and can be combined with almost all sequence taggers. Experiments on four SemEval datasets show that our model boosts the performance of three typical ATE methods by a large margin.

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Convolution over Hierarchical Syntactic and Lexical Graphs for Aspect Level Sentiment Analysis
Mi Zhang | Tieyun Qian
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

The state-of-the-art methods in aspect-level sentiment classification have leveraged the graph based models to incorporate the syntactic structure of a sentence. While being effective, these methods ignore the corpus level word co-occurrence information, which reflect the collocations in linguistics like “nothing special”. Moreover, they do not distinguish the different types of syntactic dependency, e.g., a nominal subject relation “food-was” is treated equally as an adjectival complement relation “was-okay” in “food was okay”. To tackle the above two limitations, we propose a novel architecture which convolutes over hierarchical syntactic and lexical graphs. Specifically, we employ a global lexical graph to encode the corpus level word co-occurrence information. Moreover, we build a concept hierarchy on both the syntactic and lexical graphs for differentiating various types of dependency relations or lexical word pairs. Finally, we design a bi-level interactive graph convolution network to fully exploit these two graphs. Extensive experiments on five bench- mark datasets show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines.

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Relation-Aware Collaborative Learning for Unified Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis
Zhuang Chen | Tieyun Qian
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) involves three subtasks, i.e., aspect term extraction, opinion term extraction, and aspect-level sentiment classification. Most existing studies focused on one of these subtasks only. Several recent researches made successful attempts to solve the complete ABSA problem with a unified framework. However, the interactive relations among three subtasks are still under-exploited. We argue that such relations encode collaborative signals between different subtasks. For example, when the opinion term is “delicious”, the aspect term must be “food” rather than “place”. In order to fully exploit these relations, we propose a Relation-Aware Collaborative Learning (RACL) framework which allows the subtasks to work coordinately via the multi-task learning and relation propagation mechanisms in a stacked multi-layer network. Extensive experiments on three real-world datasets demonstrate that RACL significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods for the complete ABSA task.

2019

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Transfer Capsule Network for Aspect Level Sentiment Classification
Zhuang Chen | Tieyun Qian
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Aspect-level sentiment classification aims to determine the sentiment polarity of a sentence towards an aspect. Due to the high cost in annotation, the lack of aspect-level labeled data becomes a major obstacle in this area. On the other hand, document-level labeled data like reviews are easily accessible from online websites. These reviews encode sentiment knowledge in abundant contexts. In this paper, we propose a Transfer Capsule Network (TransCap) model for transferring document-level knowledge to aspect-level sentiment classification. To this end, we first develop an aspect routing approach to encapsulate the sentence-level semantic representations into semantic capsules from both the aspect-level and document-level data. We then extend the dynamic routing approach to adaptively couple the semantic capsules with the class capsules under the transfer learning framework. Experiments on SemEval datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of TransCap.

2018

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Enhanced Aspect Level Sentiment Classification with Auxiliary Memory
Peisong Zhu | Tieyun Qian
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

In aspect level sentiment classification, there are two common tasks: to identify the sentiment of an aspect (category) or a term. As specific instances of aspects, terms explicitly occur in sentences. It is beneficial for models to focus on nearby context words. In contrast, as high level semantic concepts of terms, aspects usually have more generalizable representations. However, conventional methods cannot utilize the information of aspects and terms at the same time, because few datasets are annotated with both aspects and terms. In this paper, we propose a novel deep memory network with auxiliary memory to address this problem. In our model, a main memory is used to capture the important context words for sentiment classification. In addition, we build an auxiliary memory to implicitly convert aspects and terms to each other, and feed both of them to the main memory. With the interaction between two memories, the features of aspects and terms can be learnt simultaneously. We compare our model with the state-of-the-art methods on four datasets from different domains. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our model.

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An Attribute Enhanced Domain Adaptive Model for Cold-Start Spam Review Detection
Zhenni You | Tieyun Qian | Bing Liu
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Spam detection has long been a research topic in both academic and industry due to its wide applications. Previous studies are mainly focused on extracting linguistic or behavior features to distinguish the spam and legitimate reviews. Such features are either ineffective or take long time to collect and thus are hard to be applied to cold-start spam review detection tasks. Recent advance leveraged the neural network to encode the textual and behavior features for the cold-start problem. However, the abundant attribute information are largely neglected by the existing framework. In this paper, we propose a novel deep learning architecture for incorporating entities and their inherent attributes from various domains into a unified framework. Specifically, our model not only encodes the entities of reviewer, item, and review, but also their attributes such as location, date, price ranges. Furthermore, we present a domain classifier to adapt the knowledge from one domain to the other. With the abundant attributes in existing entities and knowledge in other domains, we successfully solve the problem of data scarcity in the cold-start settings. Experimental results on two Yelp datasets prove that our proposed framework significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

2014

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Tri-Training for Authorship Attribution with Limited Training Data
Tieyun Qian | Bing Liu | Li Chen | Zhiyong Peng
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

2013

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Identifying Multiple Userids of the Same Author
Tieyun Qian | Bing Liu
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing