Tiezheng Yu


2023

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Generating Hashtags for Short-form Videos with Guided Signals
Tiezheng Yu | Hanchao Yu | Davis Liang | Yuning Mao | Shaoliang Nie | Po-Yao Huang | Madian Khabsa | Pascale Fung | Yi-Chia Wang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Short-form video hashtag recommendation (SVHR) aims to recommend hashtags to content creators from videos and corresponding descriptions. Most prior studies regard SVHR as a classification or ranking problem and select hashtags from a set of limited candidates. However, in reality, users can create new hashtags, and trending hashtags change rapidly over time on social media. Both of these properties cannot be easily modeled with classification approaches. To bridge this gap, we formulate SVHR as a generation task that better represents how hashtags are created naturally. Additionally, we propose the Guided Generative Model (GGM) where we augment the input features by retrieving relevant hashtags from a large-scale hashtag pool as extra guidance signals. Experimental results on two short-form video datasets show that our generative models outperform strong classification baselines, and the guidance signals further boost the performance by 8.11 and 2.17 absolute ROUGE-1 scores on average, respectively. We also perform extensive analyses including human evaluation, demonstrating that our generative model can create meaningful and relevant novel hashtags while achieving state-of-the-art performance on known hashtags

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A Multitask, Multilingual, Multimodal Evaluation of ChatGPT on Reasoning, Hallucination, and Interactivity
Yejin Bang | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Nayeon Lee | Wenliang Dai | Dan Su | Bryan Wilie | Holy Lovenia | Ziwei Ji | Tiezheng Yu | Willy Chung | Quyet V. Do | Yan Xu | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing and the 3rd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Enabling Classifiers to Make Judgements Explicitly Aligned with Human Values
Yejin Bang | Tiezheng Yu | Andrea Madotto | Zhaojiang Lin | Mona Diab | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Trustworthy Natural Language Processing (TrustNLP 2023)

Many NLP classification tasks, such as sexism/racism detection or toxicity detection, are based on human values. Yet, human values can vary under diverse cultural conditions. Therefore, we introduce a framework for value-aligned classification that performs prediction based on explicitly written human values in the command. Along with the task, we propose a practical approach that distills value-aligned knowledge from large-scale language models (LLMs) to construct value-aligned classifiers in two steps. First, we generate value-aligned training data from LLMs by prompt-based few-shot learning. Next, we fine-tune smaller classification models with the generated data for the task. Empirical results show that our VA-Models surpass multiple baselines by at least 15.56% on the F1-score, including few-shot learning with OPT-175B and existing text augmentation methods. We suggest that using classifiers with explicit human value input improves both inclusivity & explainability in AI.

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RHO: Reducing Hallucination in Open-domain Dialogues with Knowledge Grounding
Ziwei Ji | Zihan Liu | Nayeon Lee | Tiezheng Yu | Bryan Wilie | Min Zeng | Pascale Fung
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Dialogue systems can leverage large pre-trained language models and knowledge to generate fluent and informative responses. However, these models are still prone to produce hallucinated responses not supported by the input source, which greatly hinders their application. The heterogeneity between external knowledge and dialogue context challenges representation learning and source integration, which further contributes to unfaithfulness. To handle this challenge and generate more faithful responses, this paper presents RHO (ρ) utilizing the representations of linked entities and relation predicates from a knowledge graph (KG). We propose (1) local knowledge grounding to combine textual embeddings with the corresponding KG embeddings; and (2) global knowledge grounding to equip RHO with multi-hop reasoning abilities via the attention mechanism. In addition, we devise a response re-ranking technique based on walks over KG sub-graphs for better conversational reasoning. Experimental results on OpenDialKG (Moon et al., 2019) show that our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods on both automatic and human evaluation by a large margin, especially in hallucination reduction (17.54% in FeQA (Durmus et al., 2020)).

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NusaCrowd: Open Source Initiative for Indonesian NLP Resources
Samuel Cahyawijaya | Holy Lovenia | Alham Fikri Aji | Genta Winata | Bryan Wilie | Fajri Koto | Rahmad Mahendra | Christian Wibisono | Ade Romadhony | Karissa Vincentio | Jennifer Santoso | David Moeljadi | Cahya Wirawan | Frederikus Hudi | Muhammad Satrio Wicaksono | Ivan Parmonangan | Ika Alfina | Ilham Firdausi Putra | Samsul Rahmadani | Yulianti Oenang | Ali Septiandri | James Jaya | Kaustubh Dhole | Arie Suryani | Rifki Afina Putri | Dan Su | Keith Stevens | Made Nindyatama Nityasya | Muhammad Adilazuarda | Ryan Hadiwijaya | Ryandito Diandaru | Tiezheng Yu | Vito Ghifari | Wenliang Dai | Yan Xu | Dyah Damapuspita | Haryo Wibowo | Cuk Tho | Ichwanul Karo Karo | Tirana Fatyanosa | Ziwei Ji | Graham Neubig | Timothy Baldwin | Sebastian Ruder | Pascale Fung | Herry Sujaini | Sakriani Sakti | Ayu Purwarianti
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

We present NusaCrowd, a collaborative initiative to collect and unify existing resources for Indonesian languages, including opening access to previously non-public resources. Through this initiative, we have brought together 137 datasets and 118 standardized data loaders. The quality of the datasets has been assessed manually and automatically, and their value is demonstrated through multiple experiments.NusaCrowd’s data collection enables the creation of the first zero-shot benchmarks for natural language understanding and generation in Indonesian and the local languages of Indonesia. Furthermore, NusaCrowd brings the creation of the first multilingual automatic speech recognition benchmark in Indonesian and the local languages of Indonesia. Our work strives to advance natural language processing (NLP) research for languages that are under-represented despite being widely spoken.

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Towards Mitigating LLM Hallucination via Self Reflection
Ziwei Ji | Tiezheng Yu | Yan Xu | Nayeon Lee | Etsuko Ishii | Pascale Fung
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Large language models (LLMs) have shown promise for generative and knowledge-intensive tasks including question-answering (QA) tasks. However, the practical deployment still faces challenges, notably the issue of “hallucination”, where models generate plausible-sounding but unfaithful or nonsensical information. This issue becomes particularly critical in the medical domain due to the uncommon professional concepts and potential social risks involved. This paper analyses the phenomenon of hallucination in medical generative QA systems using widely adopted LLMs and datasets. Our investigation centers on the identification and comprehension of common problematic answers, with a specific emphasis on hallucination. To tackle this challenge, we present an interactive self-reflection methodology that incorporates knowledge acquisition and answer generation. Through this feedback process, our approach steadily enhances the factuality, consistency, and entailment of the generated answers. Consequently, we harness the interactivity and multitasking ability of LLMs and produce progressively more precise and accurate answers. Experimental results on both automatic and human evaluation demonstrate the superiority of our approach in hallucination reduction compared to baselines.

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Improving Query-Focused Meeting Summarization with Query-Relevant Knowledge
Tiezheng Yu | Ziwei Ji | Pascale Fung
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: IJCNLP-AACL 2023 (Findings)

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InstructAlign: High-and-Low Resource Language Alignment via Continual Crosslingual Instruction Tuning
Samuel Cahyawijaya | Holy Lovenia | Tiezheng Yu | Willy Chung | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the First Workshop in South East Asian Language Processing

2022

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SNP2Vec: Scalable Self-Supervised Pre-Training for Genome-Wide Association Study
Samuel Cahyawijaya | Tiezheng Yu | Zihan Liu | Xiaopu Zhou | Tze Wing Tiffany Mak | Yuk Yu Nancy Ip | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 21st Workshop on Biomedical Language Processing

Self-supervised pre-training methods have brought remarkable breakthroughs in the understanding of text, image, and speech. Recent developments in genomics has also adopted these pre-training methods for genome understanding. However, they focus only on understanding haploid sequences, which hinders their applicability towards understanding genetic variations, also known as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which is crucial for genome-wide association study. In this paper, we introduce SNP2Vec, a scalable self-supervised pre-training approach for understanding SNP. We apply SNP2Vec to perform long-sequence genomics modeling, and we evaluate the effectiveness of our approach on predicting Alzheimer’s disease risk in a Chinese cohort. Our approach significantly outperforms existing polygenic risk score methods and all other baselines, including the model that is trained entirely with haploid sequences.

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Automatic Speech Recognition Datasets in Cantonese: A Survey and New Dataset
Tiezheng Yu | Rita Frieske | Peng Xu | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Cheuk Tung Yiu | Holy Lovenia | Wenliang Dai | Elham J. Barezi | Qifeng Chen | Xiaojuan Ma | Bertram Shi | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Automatic speech recognition (ASR) on low resource languages improves the access of linguistic minorities to technological advantages provided by artificial intelligence (AI). In this paper, we address the problem of data scarcity for the Hong Kong Cantonese language by creating a new Cantonese dataset. Our dataset, Multi-Domain Cantonese Corpus (MDCC), consists of 73.6 hours of clean read speech paired with transcripts, collected from Cantonese audiobooks from Hong Kong. It comprises philosophy, politics, education, culture, lifestyle and family domains, covering a wide range of topics. We also review all existing Cantonese datasets and analyze them according to their speech type, data source, total size and availability. We further conduct experiments with Fairseq S2T Transformer, a state-of-the-art ASR model, on the biggest existing dataset, Common Voice zh-HK, and our proposed MDCC, and the results show the effectiveness of our dataset. In addition, we create a powerful and robust Cantonese ASR model by applying multi-dataset learning on MDCC and Common Voice zh-HK.

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CI-AVSR: A Cantonese Audio-Visual Speech Datasetfor In-car Command Recognition
Wenliang Dai | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Tiezheng Yu | Elham J. Barezi | Peng Xu | Cheuk Tung Yiu | Rita Frieske | Holy Lovenia | Genta Winata | Qifeng Chen | Xiaojuan Ma | Bertram Shi | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

With the rise of deep learning and intelligent vehicles, the smart assistant has become an essential in-car component to facilitate driving and provide extra functionalities. In-car smart assistants should be able to process general as well as car-related commands and perform corresponding actions, which eases driving and improves safety. However, there is a data scarcity issue for low resource languages, hindering the development of research and applications. In this paper, we introduce a new dataset, Cantonese In-car Audio-Visual Speech Recognition (CI-AVSR), for in-car command recognition in the Cantonese language with both video and audio data. It consists of 4,984 samples (8.3 hours) of 200 in-car commands recorded by 30 native Cantonese speakers. Furthermore, we augment our dataset using common in-car background noises to simulate real environments, producing a dataset 10 times larger than the collected one. We provide detailed statistics of both the clean and the augmented versions of our dataset. Moreover, we implement two multimodal baselines to demonstrate the validity of CI-AVSR. Experiment results show that leveraging the visual signal improves the overall performance of the model. Although our best model can achieve a considerable quality on the clean test set, the speech recognition quality on the noisy data is still inferior and remains an extremely challenging task for real in-car speech recognition systems. The dataset and code will be released at https://github.com/HLTCHKUST/CI-AVSR.

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ASCEND: A Spontaneous Chinese-English Dataset for Code-switching in Multi-turn Conversation
Holy Lovenia | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Genta Winata | Peng Xu | Yan Xu | Zihan Liu | Rita Frieske | Tiezheng Yu | Wenliang Dai | Elham J. Barezi | Qifeng Chen | Xiaojuan Ma | Bertram Shi | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Code-switching is a speech phenomenon occurring when a speaker switches language during a conversation. Despite the spontaneous nature of code-switching in conversational spoken language, most existing works collect code-switching data from read speech instead of spontaneous speech. ASCEND (A Spontaneous Chinese-English Dataset) is a high-quality Mandarin Chinese-English code-switching corpus built on spontaneous multi-turn conversational dialogue sources collected in Hong Kong. We report ASCEND’s design and procedure for collecting the speech data, including annotations. ASCEND consists of 10.62 hours of clean speech, collected from 23 bilingual speakers of Chinese and English. Furthermore, we conduct baseline experiments using pre-trained wav2vec 2.0 models, achieving a best performance of 22.69% character error rate and 27.05% mixed error rate.

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NeuS: Neutral Multi-News Summarization for Mitigating Framing Bias
Nayeon Lee | Yejin Bang | Tiezheng Yu | Andrea Madotto | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Media news framing bias can increase political polarization and undermine civil society. The need for automatic mitigation methods is therefore growing. We propose a new task, a neutral summary generation from multiple news articles of the varying political leaningsto facilitate balanced and unbiased news reading. In this paper, we first collect a new dataset, illustrate insights about framing bias through a case study, and propose a new effective metric and model (NeuS-Title) for the task. Based on our discovery that title provides a good signal for framing bias, we present NeuS-Title that learns to neutralize news content in hierarchical order from title to article. Our hierarchical multi-task learning is achieved by formatting our hierarchical data pair (title, article) sequentially with identifier-tokens (“TITLE=>”, “ARTICLE=>”) and fine-tuning the auto-regressive decoder with the standard negative log-likelihood objective. We then analyze and point out the remaining challenges and future directions. One of the most interesting observations is that neural NLG models can hallucinate not only factually inaccurate or unverifiable content but also politically biased content.

2021

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AdaptSum: Towards Low-Resource Domain Adaptation for Abstractive Summarization
Tiezheng Yu | Zihan Liu | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

State-of-the-art abstractive summarization models generally rely on extensive labeled data, which lowers their generalization ability on domains where such data are not available. In this paper, we present a study of domain adaptation for the abstractive summarization task across six diverse target domains in a low-resource setting. Specifically, we investigate the second phase of pre-training on large-scale generative models under three different settings: 1) source domain pre-training; 2) domain-adaptive pre-training; and 3) task-adaptive pre-training. Experiments show that the effectiveness of pre-training is correlated with the similarity between the pre-training data and the target domain task. Moreover, we find that continuing pre-training could lead to the pre-trained model’s catastrophic forgetting, and a learning method with less forgetting can alleviate this issue. Furthermore, results illustrate that a huge gap still exists between the low-resource and high-resource settings, which highlights the need for more advanced domain adaptation methods for the abstractive summarization task.

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Vision Guided Generative Pre-trained Language Models for Multimodal Abstractive Summarization
Tiezheng Yu | Wenliang Dai | Zihan Liu | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Multimodal abstractive summarization (MAS) models that summarize videos (vision modality) and their corresponding transcripts (text modality) are able to extract the essential information from massive multimodal data on the Internet. Recently, large-scale generative pre-trained language models (GPLMs) have been shown to be effective in text generation tasks. However, existing MAS models cannot leverage GPLMs’ powerful generation ability. To fill this research gap, we aim to study two research questions: 1) how to inject visual information into GPLMs without hurting their generation ability; and 2) where is the optimal place in GPLMs to inject the visual information? In this paper, we present a simple yet effective method to construct vision guided (VG) GPLMs for the MAS task using attention-based add-on layers to incorporate visual information while maintaining their original text generation ability. Results show that our best model significantly surpasses the prior state-of-the-art model by 5.7 ROUGE-1, 5.3 ROUGE-2, and 5.1 ROUGE-L scores on the How2 dataset, and our vision guidance method contributes 83.6% of the overall improvement. Furthermore, we conduct thorough ablation studies to analyze the effectiveness of various modality fusion methods and fusion locations.

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Improve Query Focused Abstractive Summarization by Incorporating Answer Relevance
Dan Su | Tiezheng Yu | Pascale Fung
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

2020

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Kungfupanda at SemEval-2020 Task 12: BERT-Based Multi-TaskLearning for Offensive Language Detection
Wenliang Dai | Tiezheng Yu | Zihan Liu | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

Nowadays, offensive content in social media has become a serious problem, and automatically detecting offensive language is an essential task. In this paper, we build an offensive language detection system, which combines multi-task learning with BERT-based models. Using a pre-trained language model such as BERT, we can effectively learn the representations for noisy text in social media. Besides, to boost the performance of offensive language detection, we leverage the supervision signals from other related tasks. In the OffensEval-2020 competition, our model achieves 91.51% F1 score in English Sub-task A, which is comparable to the first place (92.23%F1). An empirical analysis is provided to explain the effectiveness of our approaches.

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Modality-Transferable Emotion Embeddings for Low-Resource Multimodal Emotion Recognition
Wenliang Dai | Zihan Liu | Tiezheng Yu | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 10th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

Despite the recent achievements made in the multi-modal emotion recognition task, two problems still exist and have not been well investigated: 1) the relationship between different emotion categories are not utilized, which leads to sub-optimal performance; and 2) current models fail to cope well with low-resource emotions, especially for unseen emotions. In this paper, we propose a modality-transferable model with emotion embeddings to tackle the aforementioned issues. We use pre-trained word embeddings to represent emotion categories for textual data. Then, two mapping functions are learned to transfer these embeddings into visual and acoustic spaces. For each modality, the model calculates the representation distance between the input sequence and target emotions and makes predictions based on the distances. By doing so, our model can directly adapt to the unseen emotions in any modality since we have their pre-trained embeddings and modality mapping functions. Experiments show that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance on most of the emotion categories. Besides, our model also outperforms existing baselines in the zero-shot and few-shot scenarios for unseen emotions.

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Dimsum @LaySumm 20
Tiezheng Yu | Dan Su | Wenliang Dai | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Scholarly Document Processing

Lay summarization aims to generate lay summaries of scientific papers automatically. It is an essential task that can increase the relevance of science for all of society. In this paper, we build a lay summary generation system based on BART model. We leverage sentence labels as extra supervision signals to improve the performance of lay summarization. In the CL-LaySumm 2020 shared task, our model achieves 46.00 Rouge1-F1 score.

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CAiRE-COVID: A Question Answering and Query-focused Multi-Document Summarization System for COVID-19 Scholarly Information Management
Dan Su | Yan Xu | Tiezheng Yu | Farhad Bin Siddique | Elham Barezi | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on NLP for COVID-19 (Part 2) at EMNLP 2020

We present CAiRE-COVID, a real-time question answering (QA) and multi-document summarization system, which won one of the 10 tasks in the Kaggle COVID-19 Open Research Dataset Challenge, judged by medical experts. Our system aims to tackle the recent challenge of mining the numerous scientific articles being published on COVID-19 by answering high priority questions from the community and summarizing salient question-related information. It combines information extraction with state-of-the-art QA and query-focused multi-document summarization techniques, selecting and highlighting evidence snippets from existing literature given a query. We also propose query-focused abstractive and extractive multi-document summarization methods, to provide more relevant information related to the question. We further conduct quantitative experiments that show consistent improvements on various metrics for each module. We have launched our website CAiRE-COVID for broader use by the medical community, and have open-sourced the code for our system, to bootstrap further study by other researches.

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Multi-hop Question Generation with Graph Convolutional Network
Dan Su | Yan Xu | Wenliang Dai | Ziwei Ji | Tiezheng Yu | Pascale Fung
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Multi-hop Question Generation (QG) aims to generate answer-related questions by aggregating and reasoning over multiple scattered evidence from different paragraphs. It is a more challenging yet under-explored task compared to conventional single-hop QG, where the questions are generated from the sentence containing the answer or nearby sentences in the same paragraph without complex reasoning. To address the additional challenges in multi-hop QG, we propose Multi-Hop Encoding Fusion Network for Question Generation (MulQG), which does context encoding in multiple hops with Graph Convolutional Network and encoding fusion via an Encoder Reasoning Gate. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to tackle the challenge of multi-hop reasoning over paragraphs without any sentence-level information. Empirical results on HotpotQA dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, in comparison with baselines on automatic evaluation metrics. Moreover, from the human evaluation, our proposed model is able to generate fluent questions with high completeness and outperforms the strongest baseline by 20.8% in the multi-hop evaluation. on. The code is publicly availableat https://github.com/HLTCHKU