Tim Anderson

Also published as: Timothy Anderson


2021

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Tune in: The AFRL WMT21 News-Translation Systems
Grant Erdmann | Jeremy Gwinnup | Tim Anderson
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper describes the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) machine translation sys- tems and the improvements that were developed during the WMT21 evaluation campaign. This year, we explore various methods of adapting our baseline models from WMT20 and again measure improvements in performance on the Russian–English language pair.

2020

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The AFRL IWSLT 2020 Systems: Work-From-Home Edition
Brian Ore | Eric Hansen | Tim Anderson | Jeremy Gwinnup
Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation

This report summarizes the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) submission to the offline spoken language translation (SLT) task as part of the IWSLT 2020 evaluation campaign. As in previous years, we chose to adopt the cascade approach of using separate systems to perform speech activity detection, automatic speech recognition, sentence segmentation, and machine translation. All systems were neural based, including a fully-connected neural network for speech activity detection, a Kaldi factorized time delay neural network with recurrent neural network (RNN) language model rescoring for speech recognition, a bidirectional RNN with attention mechanism for sentence segmentation, and transformer networks trained with OpenNMT and Marian for machine translation. Our primary submission yielded BLEU scores of 21.28 on tst2019 and 23.33 on tst2020.

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The AFRL WMT20 News Translation Systems
Jeremy Gwinnup | Tim Anderson
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation

This report summarizes the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) machine translation (MT) systems submitted to the news-translation task as part of the 2020 Conference on Machine Translation (WMT20) evaluation campaign. This year we largely repurpose strategies from previous years’ efforts with larger datasets and also train models with precomputed word alignments under various settings in an effort to improve translation quality.

2019

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The AFRL WMT19 Systems: Old Favorites and New Tricks
Jeremy Gwinnup | Grant Erdmann | Tim Anderson
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 2: Shared Task Papers, Day 1)

This paper describes the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) machine translation systems and the improvements that were developed during the WMT19 evaluation campaign. This year, we refine our approach to training popular neural machine translation toolkits, experiment with a new domain adaptation technique and again measure improvements in performance on the Russian–English language pair.

2018

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Freezing Subnetworks to Analyze Domain Adaptation in Neural Machine Translation
Brian Thompson | Huda Khayrallah | Antonios Anastasopoulos | Arya D. McCarthy | Kevin Duh | Rebecca Marvin | Paul McNamee | Jeremy Gwinnup | Tim Anderson | Philipp Koehn
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Research Papers

To better understand the effectiveness of continued training, we analyze the major components of a neural machine translation system (the encoder, decoder, and each embedding space) and consider each component’s contribution to, and capacity for, domain adaptation. We find that freezing any single component during continued training has minimal impact on performance, and that performance is surprisingly good when a single component is adapted while holding the rest of the model fixed. We also find that continued training does not move the model very far from the out-of-domain model, compared to a sensitivity analysis metric, suggesting that the out-of-domain model can provide a good generic initialization for the new domain.

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The AFRL WMT18 Systems: Ensembling, Continuation and Combination
Jeremy Gwinnup | Tim Anderson | Grant Erdmann | Katherine Young
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Shared Task Papers

This paper describes the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) machine translation systems and the improvements that were developed during the WMT18 evaluation campaign. This year, we examined the developments and additions to popular neural machine translation toolkits and measure improvements in performance on the Russian–English language pair.

2017

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The AFRL-MITLL WMT17 Systems: Old, New, Borrowed, BLEU
Jeremy Gwinnup | Timothy Anderson | Grant Erdmann | Katherine Young | Michaeel Kazi | Elizabeth Salesky | Brian Thompson | Jonathan Taylor
Proceedings of the Second Conference on Machine Translation

2016

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The MITLL-AFRL IWSLT 2016 Systems
Michaeel Kazi | Elizabeth Salesky | Brian Thompson | Jonathan Taylor | Jeremy Gwinnup | Timothy Anderson | Grant Erdmann | Eric Hansen | Brian Ore | Katherine Young | Michael Hutt
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation

This report summarizes the MITLL-AFRL MT and ASR systems and the experiments run during the 2016 IWSLT evaluation campaign. Building on lessons learned from previous years’ results, we refine our ASR systems and examine the explosion of neural machine translation systems and techniques developed in the past year. We experiment with a variety of phrase-based, hierarchical and neural-network approaches in machine translation and utilize system combination to create a composite system with the best characteristics of all attempted MT approaches.

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The AFRL-MITLL WMT16 News-Translation Task Systems
Jeremy Gwinnup | Tim Anderson | Grant Erdmann | Katherine Young | Michaeel Kazi | Elizabeth Salesky | Brian Thompson
Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 2, Shared Task Papers

2015

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The MITLL-AFRL IWSLT 2015 MT system
Michaeel Kazi | Brian Thompson | Elizabeth Salesky | Timothy Anderson | Grant Erdmann | Eric Hansen | Brian Ore | Katherine Young | Jeremy Gwinnup | Michael Hutt | Christina May
Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

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The AFRL-MITLL WMT15 System: There’s More than One Way to Decode It!
Jeremy Gwinnup | Tim Anderson | Grant Erdmann | Katherine Young | Christina May | Michaeel Kazi | Elizabeth Salesky | Brian Thompson
Proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

2014

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The MITLL-AFRL IWSLT 2014 MT system
Michaeel Kazi | Elizabeth Salesky | Brian Thompson | Jessica Ray | Michael Coury | Tim Anderson | Grant Erdmann | Jeremy Gwinnup | Katherine Young | Brian Ore | Michael Hutt
Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

This report summarizes the MITLL-AFRL MT and ASR systems and the experiments run using them during the 2014 IWSLT evaluation campaign. Our MT system is much improved over last year, owing to integration of techniques such as PRO and DREM optimization, factored language models, neural network joint model rescoring, multiple phrase tables, and development set creation. We focused our eforts this year on the tasks of translating from Arabic, Russian, Chinese, and Farsi into English, as well as translating from English to French. ASR performance also improved, partly due to increased eforts with deep neural networks for hybrid and tandem systems. Work focused on both the English and Italian ASR tasks.

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Machine Translation and Monolingual Postediting: The AFRL WMT-14 System
Lane Schwartz | Timothy Anderson | Jeremy Gwinnup | Katherine Young
Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

2013

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The MIT-LL/AFRL IWSLT-2013 MT system
Michaeel Kazi | Michael Coury | Elizabeth Salesky | Jessica Ray | Wade Shen | Terry Gleason | Tim Anderson | Grant Erdmann | Lane Schwartz | Brian Ore | Raymond Slyh | Jeremy Gwinnup | Katherine Young | Michael Hutt
Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

This paper describes the MIT-LL/AFRL statistical MT system and the improvements that were developed during the IWSLT 2013 evaluation campaign [1]. As part of these efforts, we experimented with a number of extensions to the standard phrase-based model that improve performance on the Russian to English, Chinese to English, Arabic to English, and English to French TED-talk translation task. We also applied our existing ASR system to the TED-talk lecture ASR task. We discuss the architecture of the MIT-LL/AFRL MT system, improvements over our 2012 system, and experiments we ran during the IWSLT-2013 evaluation. Specifically, we focus on 1) cross-entropy filtering of MT training data, and 2) improved optimization techniques, 3) language modeling, and 4) approximation of out-of-vocabulary words.

2012

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The MIT-LL/AFRL IWSLT 2012 MT system
Jennifer Drexler | Wade Shen | Tim Anderson | Raymond Slyh | Brian Ore | Eric Hansen | Terry Gleason
Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

This paper describes the MIT-LL/AFRL statistical MT system and the improvements that were developed during the IWSLT 2012 evaluation campaign. As part of these efforts, we experimented with a number of extensions to the standard phrase-based model that improve performance on the Arabic to English and English to French TED-talk translation task. We also applied our existing ASR system to the TED-talk lecture ASR task, and combined our ASR and MT systems for the TED-talk SLT task. We discuss the architecture of the MIT-LL/AFRL MT system, improvements over our 2011 system, and experiments we ran during the IWSLT-2012 evaluation. Specifically, we focus on 1) cross-domain translation using MAP adaptation, 2) cross-entropy filtering of MT training data, and 3) improved Arabic morphology for MT preprocessing.

2011

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The MIT-LL/AFRL IWSLT-2011 MT system
A. Ryan Aminzadeh | Tim Anderson | Ray Slyh | Brian Ore | Eric Hansen | Wade Shen | Jennifer Drexler | Terry Gleason
Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

This paper describes the MIT-LL/AFRL statistical MT system and the improvements that were developed during the IWSLT 2011 evaluation campaign. As part of these efforts, we experimented with a number of extensions to the standard phrase-based model that improve performance on the Arabic to English and English to French TED-talk translation tasks. We also applied our existing ASR system to the TED-talk lecture ASR task. We discuss the architecture of the MIT-LL/AFRL MT system, improvements over our 2010 system, and experiments we ran during the IWSLT-2011 evaluation. Specifically, we focus on 1) speech recognition for lecture-like data, 2) cross-domain translation using MAP adaptation, and 3) improved Arabic morphology for MT preprocessing.

2010

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The MIT-LL/AFRL IWSLT-2010 MT system
Wade Shen | Timothy Anderson | Raymond Slyh | A. Ryan Aminzadeh
Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

This paper describes the MIT-LL/AFRL statistical MT system and the improvements that were developed during the IWSLT 2010 evaluation campaign. As part of these efforts, we experimented with a number of extensions to the standard phrase-based model that improve performance on the Arabic and Turkish to English translation tasks. We also participated in the new French to English BTEC and English to French TALK tasks. We discuss the architecture of the MIT-LL/AFRL MT system, improvements over our 2008 system, and experiments we ran during the IWSLT-2010 evaluation. Specifically, we focus on 1) cross-domain translation using MAP adaptation, 2) Turkish morphological processing and translation, 3) improved Arabic morphology for MT preprocessing, and 4) system combination methods for machine translation.

2009

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The MIT-LL/AFRL IWSLT-2009 MT system
Wade Shen | Brian Delaney | A. Ryan Aminzadeh | Tim Anderson | Ray Slyh
Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

This paper describes the MIT-LL/AFRL statistical MT system and the improvements that were developed during the IWSLT 2009 evaluation campaign. As part of these efforts, we experimented with a number of extensions to the standard phrase-based model that improve performance on the Arabic and Turkish to English translation tasks. We discuss the architecture of the MIT-LL/AFRL MT system, improvements over our 2008 system, and experiments we ran during the IWSLT-2009 evaluation. Specifically, we focus on 1) Cross-domain translation using MAP adaptation and unsupervised training, 2) Turkish morphological processing and translation, 3) improved Arabic morphology for MT preprocessing, and 4) system combination methods for machine translation.

2008

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The MIT-LL/AFRL IWSLT-2008 MT system.
Wade Shen | Brian Delaney | Tim Anderson | Ray Slyh
Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

This paper describes the MIT-LL/AFRL statistical MT system and the improvements that were developed during the IWSLT 2008 evaluation campaign. As part of these efforts, we experimented with a number of extensions to the standard phrase-based model that improve performance for both text and speech-based translation on Chinese and Arabic translation tasks. We discuss the architecture of the MIT-LL/AFRL MT system, improvements over our 2007 system, and experiments we ran during the IWSLT-2008 evaluation. Specifically, we focus on 1) novel segmentation models for phrase-based MT, 2) improved lattice and confusion network decoding of speech input, 3) improved Arabic morphology for MT preprocessing, and 4) system combination methods for machine translation.

2007

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The MIT-LL/AFRL IWSLT-2007 MT system
Wade Shen | Brian Delaney | Tim Anderson | Ray Slyh
Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation

The MIT-LL/AFRL MT system implements a standard phrase-based, statistical translation model. It incorporates a number of extensions that improve performance for speech-based translation. During this evaluation our efforts focused on the rapid porting of our SMT system to a new language (Arabic) and novel approaches to translation from speech input. This paper discusses the architecture of the MIT-LL/AFRL MT system, improvements over our 2006 system, and experiments we ran during the IWSLT-2007 evaluation. Specifically, we focus on 1) experiments comparing the performance of confusion network decoding and direct lattice decoding techniques for machine translation of speech, 2) the application of lightweight morphology for Arabic MT preprocessing and 3) improved confusion network decoding.

2006

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The MIT-LL/AFRL IWSLT-2006 MT system
Wade Shen | Brian Delaney | Tim Anderson
Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

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An efficient graph search decoder for phrase-based statistical machine translation
Brian Delaney | Wade Shen | Timothy Anderson
Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Papers

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Toward an Interagency Language Roundtable Based Assessment of Speech-to-Speech Translation Capabilities
Douglas Jones | Timothy Anderson | Sabine Atwell | Brian Delaney | James Dirgin | Michael Emots | Neil Granoein | Martha Herzog | Timothy Hunter | Sargon Jabri | Wade Shen | Jurgen Sottung
Proceedings of the 7th Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas: Technical Papers

We present observations from three exercises designed to map the effective listening and speaking skills of an operator of a speech-to-speech translation system (S2S) to the Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) scale. Such a mapping is non-trivial, but will be useful for government and military decision makers in managing expectations of S2S technology. We observed domain-dependent S2S capabilities in the ILR range of Level 0+ to Level 1, and interactive text-based machine translation in the Level 3 range.

2005

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The MIT-LL/AFRL MT System
Wade Shen | Brian Delaney | Tim Anderson
Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation