In the Russo-Ukrainian war, propaganda is produced by Russian state-run news outlets for both international and domestic audiences. Its content and form evolve and change with time as the war continues. This constitutes a challenge to content moderation tools based on machine learning when the data used for training and the current news start to differ significantly. In this follow-up study, we evaluate our previous BERT and SVM models that classify Pro-Kremlin propaganda from a Pro-Western stance, trained on the data from news articles and telegram posts at the start of 2022, on the new 2023 subset. We examine both classifiers’ errors and perform a comparative analysis of these subsets to investigate which changes in narratives provoke drops in performance.
Reflection about a learning process is beneficial to students in higher education (Bub-nys, 2019). The importance of machine understanding of reflective texts grows as applications supporting students become more widespread. Nevertheless, due to the sensitive content, there is no public corpus available yet for the classification of text reflectiveness. We provide the first open-access corpus of reflective student essays in German. We collected essays from three different disciplines (Software Development, Ethics of Artificial Intelligence, and Teacher Training). We annotated the corpus at sentence level with binary reflective/non-reflective labels, using an iterative annotation process with linguistic and didactic specialists, mapping the reflective components found in the data to existing schemes and complementing them. We propose and evaluate linguistic features of reflectiveness and analyse their distribution within the resulted sentences according to their labels. Our contribution constitutes the first open-access corpus to help the community towards a unified approach for reflection detection.