Ting-Rui Chiang


2022

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Breaking Down Multilingual Machine Translation
Ting-Rui Chiang | Yi-Pei Chen | Yi-Ting Yeh | Graham Neubig
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

While multilingual training is now an essential ingredient in machine translation (MT) systems, recent work has demonstrated that it has different effects in different multilingual settings, such as many-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many learning. These training settings expose the encoder and the decoder in a machine translation model with different data distributions. In this paper, we examine how different varieties of multilingual training contribute to learning these two components of the MT model. Specifically, we compare bilingual models with encoders and/or decoders initialized by multilingual training. We show that multilingual training is beneficial to encoders in general, while it only benefits decoders for low-resource languages (LRLs). We further find the important attention heads for each language pair and compare their correlations during inference. Our analysis sheds light on how multilingual translation models work and also enables us to propose methods to improve performance by training with highly related languages. Our many-to-one models for high-resource languages and one-to-many models for LRL outperform the best results reported by Aharoni et al. (2019).

2021

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Improving Dialogue State Tracking by Joint Slot Modeling
Ting-Rui Chiang | Yi-Ting Yeh
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Conversational AI

Dialogue state tracking models play an important role in a task-oriented dialogue system. However, most of them model the slot types conditionally independently given the input. We discover that it may cause the model to be confused by slot types that share the same data type. To mitigate this issue, we propose TripPy-MRF and TripPy-LSTM that models the slots jointly. Our results show that they are able to alleviate the confusion mentioned above, and they push the state-of-the-art on dataset MultiWoz 2.1 from 58.7 to 61.3.

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Relating Neural Text Degeneration to Exposure Bias
Ting-Rui Chiang | Yun-Nung Chen
Proceedings of the Fourth BlackboxNLP Workshop on Analyzing and Interpreting Neural Networks for NLP

This work focuses on relating two mysteries in neural-based text generation: exposure bias, and text degeneration. Despite the long time since exposure bias was mentioned and the numerous studies for its remedy, to our knowledge, its impact on text generation has not yet been verified. Text degeneration is a problem that the widely-used pre-trained language model GPT-2 was recently found to suffer from (Holtzman et al., 2020). Motivated by the unknown causation of the text degeneration, in this paper we attempt to relate these two mysteries. Specifically, we first qualitatively and quantitatively identify mistakes made before text degeneration occurs. Then we investigate the significance of the mistakes by inspecting the hidden states in GPT-2. Our results show that text degeneration is likely to be partly caused by exposure bias. We also study the self-reinforcing mechanism of text degeneration, explaining why the mistakes amplify. In sum, our study provides a more concrete foundation for further investigation on exposure bias and text degeneration problems.

2019

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Semantically-Aligned Equation Generation for Solving and Reasoning Math Word Problems
Ting-Rui Chiang | Yun-Nung Chen
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Solving math word problems is a challenging task that requires accurate natural language understanding to bridge natural language texts and math expressions. Motivated by the intuition about how human generates the equations given the problem texts, this paper presents a neural approach to automatically solve math word problems by operating symbols according to their semantic meanings in texts. This paper views the process of generating equation as a bridge between the semantic world and the symbolic world, where the proposed neural math solver is based on an encoder-decoder framework. In the proposed model, the encoder is designed to understand the semantics of problems, and the decoder focuses on tracking semantic meanings of the generated symbols and then deciding which symbol to generate next. The preliminary experiments are conducted in a dataset Math23K, and our model significantly outperforms both the state-of-the-art single model and the best non-retrieval-based model over about 10% accuracy, demonstrating the effectiveness of bridging the symbolic and semantic worlds from math word problems.