Ting-Yao Hsu


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Summaries as Captions: Generating Figure Captions for Scientific Documents with Automated Text Summarization
Chieh-Yang Huang | Ting-Yao Hsu | Ryan Rossi | Ani Nenkova | Sungchul Kim | Gromit Yeuk-Yin Chan | Eunyee Koh | C Lee Giles | Ting-Hao Huang
Proceedings of the 16th International Natural Language Generation Conference

Good figure captions help paper readers understand complex scientific figures. Unfortunately, even published papers often have poorly written captions. Automatic caption generation could aid paper writers by providing good starting captions that can be refined for better quality. Prior work often treated figure caption generation as a vision-to-language task. In this paper, we show that it can be more effectively tackled as a text summarization task in scientific documents. We fine-tuned PEGASUS, a pre-trained abstractive summarization model, to specifically summarize figure-referencing paragraphs (e.g., “Figure 3 shows...”) into figure captions. Experiments on large-scale arXiv figures show that our method outperforms prior vision methods in both automatic and human evaluations. We further conducted an in-depth investigation focused on two key challenges: (i) the common presence of low-quality author-written captions and (ii) the lack of clear standards for good captions. Our code and data are available at: https://github.com/Crowd-AI-Lab/Generating-Figure-Captions-as-a-Text-Summarization-Task.

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GPT-4 as an Effective Zero-Shot Evaluator for Scientific Figure Captions
Ting-Yao Hsu | Chieh-Yang Huang | Ryan Rossi | Sungchul Kim | C. Giles | Ting-Hao Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

There is growing interest in systems that generate captions for scientific figures. However, assessing these systems’ output poses a significant challenge. Human evaluation requires academic expertise and is costly, while automatic evaluation depends on often low-quality author-written captions. This paper investigates using large language models (LLMs) as a cost-effective, reference-free method for evaluating figure captions. We first constructed SCICAP-EVAL, a human evaluation dataset that contains human judgments for 3,600 scientific figure captions, both original and machine-made, for 600 arXiv figures. We then prompted LLMs like GPT-4 and GPT-3 to score (1-6) each caption based on its potential to aid reader understanding, given relevant context such as figure-mentioning paragraphs. Results show that GPT-4, used as a zero-shot evaluator, outperformed all other models and even surpassed assessments made by computer science undergraduates, achieving a Kendall correlation score of 0.401 with Ph.D. students’ rankings.


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Summarizing Community-based Question-Answer Pairs
Ting-Yao Hsu | Yoshi Suhara | Xiaolan Wang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Community-based Question Answering (CQA), which allows users to acquire their desired information, has increasingly become an essential component of online services in various domains such as E-commerce, travel, and dining. However, an overwhelming number of CQA pairs makes it difficult for users without particular intent to find useful information spread over CQA pairs. To help users quickly digest the key information, we propose the novel CQA summarization task that aims to create a concise summary from CQA pairs. To this end, we first design a multi-stage data annotation process and create a benchmark dataset, COQASUM, based on the Amazon QA corpus. We then compare a collection of extractive and abstractive summarization methods and establish a strong baseline approach DedupLED for the CQA summarization task. Our experiment further confirms two key challenges, sentence-type transfer and deduplication removal, towards the CQA summarization task. Our data and code are publicly available.


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SciCap: Generating Captions for Scientific Figures
Ting-Yao Hsu | C Lee Giles | Ting-Hao Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Researchers use figures to communicate rich, complex information in scientific papers. The captions of these figures are critical to conveying effective messages. However, low-quality figure captions commonly occur in scientific articles and may decrease understanding. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end neural framework to automatically generate informative, high-quality captions for scientific figures. To this end, we introduce SCICAP, a large-scale figure-caption dataset based on computer science arXiv papers published between 2010 and 2020. After pre-processing – including figure-type classification, sub-figure identification, text normalization, and caption text selection – SCICAP contained more than two million figures extracted from over 290,000 papers. We then established baseline models that caption graph plots, the dominant (19.2%) figure type. The experimental results showed both opportunities and steep challenges of generating captions for scientific figures.


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Visual Story Post-Editing
Ting-Yao Hsu | Chieh-Yang Huang | Yen-Chia Hsu | Ting-Hao Huang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We introduce the first dataset for human edits of machine-generated visual stories and explore how these collected edits may be used for the visual story post-editing task. The dataset ,VIST-Edit, includes 14,905 human-edited versions of 2,981 machine-generated visual stories. The stories were generated by two state-of-the-art visual storytelling models, each aligned to 5 human-edited versions. We establish baselines for the task, showing how a relatively small set of human edits can be leveraged to boost the performance of large visual storytelling models. We also discuss the weak correlation between automatic evaluation scores and human ratings, motivating the need for new automatic metrics.