Ting Yao


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DPTDR: Deep Prompt Tuning for Dense Passage Retrieval
Zhengyang Tang | Benyou Wang | Ting Yao
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Deep prompt tuning (DPT) has gained great success in most natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, it is not well-investigated in dense retrieval where fine-tuning (FT) still dominates. When deploying multiple retrieval tasks using the same backbone model (e.g., RoBERTa), FT-based methods are unfriendly in terms of deployment cost: each new retrieval model needs to repeatedly deploy the backbone model without reuse. To reduce the deployment cost in such a scenario, this work investigates applying DPT in dense retrieval. The challenge is that directly applying DPT in dense retrieval largely underperforms FT methods. To compensate for the performance drop, we propose two model-agnostic and task-agnostic strategies for DPT-based retrievers, namely retrieval-oriented intermediate pretraining and unified negative mining, as a general approach that could be compatible with any pre-trained language model and retrieval task. The experimental results show that the proposed method (called DPTDR) outperforms previous state-of-the-art models on both MS-MARCO and Natural Questions. We also conduct ablation studies to examine the effectiveness of each strategy in DPTDR. We believe this work facilitates the industry, as it saves enormous efforts and costs of deployment and increases the utility of computing resources. Our code is available at https://github.com/tangzhy/DPTDR.


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Multi-Lingual Question Generation with Language Agnostic Language Model
Bingning Wang | Ting Yao | Weipeng Chen | Jingfang Xu | Xiaochuan Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021


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A Self-Training Method for Machine Reading Comprehension with Soft Evidence Extraction
Yilin Niu | Fangkai Jiao | Mantong Zhou | Ting Yao | Jingfang Xu | Minlie Huang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Neural models have achieved great success on machine reading comprehension (MRC), many of which typically consist of two components: an evidence extractor and an answer predictor. The former seeks the most relevant information from a reference text, while the latter is to locate or generate answers from the extracted evidence. Despite the importance of evidence labels for training the evidence extractor, they are not cheaply accessible, particularly in many non-extractive MRC tasks such as YES/NO question answering and multi-choice MRC. To address this problem, we present a Self-Training method (STM), which supervises the evidence extractor with auto-generated evidence labels in an iterative process. At each iteration, a base MRC model is trained with golden answers and noisy evidence labels. The trained model will predict pseudo evidence labels as extra supervision in the next iteration. We evaluate STM on seven datasets over three MRC tasks. Experimental results demonstrate the improvement on existing MRC models, and we also analyze how and why such a self-training method works in MRC.