Tingyu Xie


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A Class-Rebalancing Self-Training Framework for Distantly-Supervised Named Entity Recognition
Qi Li | Tingyu Xie | Peng Peng | Hongwei Wang | Gaoang Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Distant supervision reduces the reliance on human annotation in the named entity recognition tasks. The class-level imbalanced distant annotation is a realistic and unexplored problem, and the popular method of self-training can not handle class-level imbalanced learning. More importantly, self-training is dominated by the high-performance class in selecting candidates, and deteriorates the low-performance class with the bias of generated pseudo label. To address the class-level imbalance performance, we propose a class-rebalancing self-training framework for improving the distantly-supervised named entity recognition. In candidate selection, a class-wise flexible threshold is designed to fully explore other classes besides the high-performance class. In label generation, injecting the distant label, a hybrid pseudo label is adopted to provide straight semantic information for the low-performance class. Experiments on five flat and two nested datasets show that our model achieves state-of-the-art results. We also conduct extensive research to analyze the effectiveness of the flexible threshold and the hybrid pseudo label.

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Empirical Study of Zero-Shot NER with ChatGPT
Tingyu Xie | Qi Li | Jian Zhang | Yan Zhang | Zuozhu Liu | Hongwei Wang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Large language models (LLMs) exhibited powerful capability in various natural language processing tasks. This work focuses on exploring LLM performance on zero-shot information extraction, with a focus on the ChatGPT and named entity recognition (NER) task. Inspired by the remarkable reasoning capability of LLM on symbolic and arithmetic reasoning, we adapt the prevalent reasoning methods to NER and propose reasoning strategies tailored for NER. First, we explore a decomposed question-answering paradigm by breaking down the NER task into simpler subproblems by labels. Second, we propose syntactic augmentation to stimulate the model’s intermediate thinking in two ways: syntactic prompting, which encourages the model to analyze the syntactic structure itself, and tool augmentation, which provides the model with the syntactic information generated by a parsing tool. Besides, we adapt self-consistency to NER by proposing a two-stage majority voting strategy, which first votes for the most consistent mentions, then the most consistent types. The proposed methods achieve remarkable improvements for zero-shot NER across seven benchmarks, including Chinese and English datasets, and on both domain-specific and general-domain scenarios. In addition, we present a comprehensive analysis of the error types with suggestions for optimization directions. We also verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods on the few-shot setting and other LLMs.