Tong Chen


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Sub-Sentence Encoder: Contrastive Learning of Propositional Semantic Representations
Sihao Chen | Hongming Zhang | Tong Chen | Ben Zhou | Wenhao Yu | Dian Yu | Baolin Peng | Hongwei Wang | Dan Roth | Dong Yu
Proceedings of the 2024 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We introduce sub-sentence encoder, a contrastively-learned contextual embedding model for fine-grained semantic representation of text. In contrast to the standard practice with sentence embeddings, where the meaning of an entire sequence of text is encoded into a fixed-length vector, the sub-sentence encoder learns to produce distinct contextual embeddings corresponding to different atomic propositions, i.e. atomic units of meaning expressed within a text sequence. The sub-sentence embeddings are contrastively learned to recognize (inferred) semantic equivalence between propositions across different text sequences. Our experiments show the effectiveness of sub-sentence encoders in applications, such as retrieving supporting facts for fine-grained text attribution or recognizing the conditional semantic similarity between texts. In practice, we demonstrate that sub-sentence encoders keep the same level of inference cost and space complexity compared to sentence encoders.


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KGA: A General Machine Unlearning Framework Based on Knowledge Gap Alignment
Lingzhi Wang | Tong Chen | Wei Yuan | Xingshan Zeng | Kam-Fai Wong | Hongzhi Yin
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recent legislation of the “right to be forgotten” has led to the interest in machine unlearning, where the learned models are endowed with the function to forget information about specific training instances as if they have never existed in the training set. Previous work mainly focuses on computer vision scenarios and largely ignores the essentials of unlearning in NLP field, where text data contains more explicit and sensitive personal information than images. In this paper, we propose a general unlearning framework called KGA to induce forgetfulness. Different from previous work that tries to recover gradients or forces models to perform close to one specific distribution, KGA maintains distribution differences (i.e., knowledge gap). This relaxes the distribution assumption. Furthermore, we first apply the unlearning method to various NLP tasks (i.e., classification, translation, response generation) and propose several unlearning evaluation metrics with pertinence. Experiments on large-scale datasets show that KGA yields comprehensive improvements over baselines, where extensive analyses further validate the effectiveness of KGA and provide insight into unlearning for NLP tasks.


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Collaborative Policy Learning for Open Knowledge Graph Reasoning
Cong Fu | Tong Chen | Meng Qu | Woojeong Jin | Xiang Ren
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

In recent years, there has been a surge of interests in interpretable graph reasoning methods. However, these models often suffer from limited performance when working on sparse and incomplete graphs, due to the lack of evidential paths that can reach target entities. Here we study open knowledge graph reasoning—a task that aims to reason for missing facts over a graph augmented by a background text corpus. A key challenge of the task is to filter out “irrelevant” facts extracted from corpus, in order to maintain an effective search space during path inference. We propose a novel reinforcement learning framework to train two collaborative agents jointly, i.e., a multi-hop graph reasoner and a fact extractor. The fact extraction agent generates fact triples from corpora to enrich the graph on the fly; while the reasoning agent provides feedback to the fact extractor and guides it towards promoting facts that are helpful for the interpretable reasoning. Experiments on two public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.