In this paper, we propose a variational autoencoder with disentanglement priors, VAE-Dprior, for task-specific natural language generation with none or a handful of task-specific labeled examples. In order to tackle compositional generalization across tasks, our model performs disentangled representation learning by introducing a conditional prior for the latent content space and another conditional prior for the latent label space. Both types of priors satisfy a novel property called 𝜖-disentangled. We show both empirically and theoretically that the novel priors can disentangle representations even without specific regularizations as in the prior work. The content prior enables directly sampling diverse content representations from the content space learned from the seen tasks, and fuse them with the representations of novel tasks for generating semantically diverse texts in the low-resource settings. Our extensive experiments demonstrate the superior performance of our model over competitive baselines in terms of i) data augmentation in continuous zero/few-shot learning, and ii) text style transfer in the few-shot setting.
Relation extraction typically aims to extract semantic relationships between entities from the unstructured text.One of the most essential data sources for relation extraction is the spoken language, such as interviews and dialogues.However, the error propagation introduced in automatic speech recognition (ASR) has been ignored in relation extraction, and the end-to-end speech-based relation extraction method has been rarely explored.In this paper, we propose a new listening information extraction task, i.e., speech relation extraction.We construct the training dataset for speech relation extraction via text-to-speech systems, and we construct the testing dataset via crowd-sourcing with native English speakers.We explore speech relation extraction via two approaches: the pipeline approach conducting text-based extraction with a pretrained ASR module, and the end2end approach via a new proposed encoder-decoder model, or what we called SpeechRE.We conduct comprehensive experiments to distinguish the challenges in speech relation extraction, which may shed light on future explorations. We share the code and data on https://github.com/wutong8023/SpeechRE.
This paper studies event causality identification, which aims at predicting the causality relation for a pair of events in a sentence. Regarding event causality identification as a supervised classification task, most existing methods suffer from the problem of insufficient annotated data. In this paper, we propose a new derivative prompt joint learning model for event causality identification, which leverages potential causal knowledge in the pre-trained language model to tackle the data scarcity problem. Specifically, rather than external data or knowledge augmentation, we derive two relevant prompt tasks from event causality identification to enhance the model’s ability to identify explicit and implicit causality. We evaluate our model on two benchmark datasets and the results show that our model has great advantages over previous methods.
Complex question-answering (CQA) involves answering complex natural-language questions on a knowledge base (KB). However, the conventional neural program induction (NPI) approach exhibits uneven performance when the questions have different types, harboring inherently different characteristics, e.g., difficulty level. This paper proposes a meta-reinforcement learning approach to program induction in CQA to tackle the potential distributional bias in questions. Our method quickly and effectively adapts the meta-learned programmer to new questions based on the most similar questions retrieved from the training data. The meta-learned policy is then used to learn a good programming policy, utilizing the trial trajectories and their rewards for similar questions in the support set. Our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on the CQA dataset (Saha et al., 2018) while using only five trial trajectories for the top-5 retrieved questions in each support set, and meta-training on tasks constructed from only 1% of the training set. We have released our code at https://github.com/DevinJake/MRL-CQA.