Tosin Adewumi


2023

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LOWRECORP: the Low-Resource NLG Corpus Building Challenge
Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | David M. Howcroft | Dimitra Gkatzia | Yi-Ling Chung | Yufang Hou | Chris Chinenye Emezue | Pawan Rajpoot | Tosin Adewumi
Proceedings of the 16th International Natural Language Generation Conference: Generation Challenges

Most languages in the world do not have sufficient data available to develop neural-network-based natural language generation (NLG) systems. To alleviate this resource scarcity, we propose a novel challenge for the NLG community: low-resource language corpus development (LOWRECORP). We present an innovative framework to collect a single dataset with dual tasks to maximize the efficiency of data collection efforts and respect language consultant time. Specifically, we focus on a text-chat-based interface for two generation tasks – conversational response generation grounded in a source document and/or image and dialogue summarization (from the former task). The goal of this shared task is to collectively develop grounded datasets for local and low-resourced languages. To enable data collection, we make available web-based software that can be used to collect these grounded conversations and summaries. Submissions will be assessed for the size, complexity, and diversity of the corpora to ensure quality control of the datasets as well as any enhancements to the interface or novel approaches to grounding conversations.

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Bipol: Multi-Axes Evaluation of Bias with Explainability in Benchmark Datasets
Tosin Adewumi | Isabella Södergren | Lama Alkhaled | Sana Al-azzawi | Foteini Simistira Liwicki | Marcus Liwicki
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing

We investigate five English NLP benchmark datasets (on the superGLUE leaderboard) and two Swedish datasets for bias, along multiple axes. The datasets are the following: Boolean Question (Boolq), CommitmentBank (CB), Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC), Winogender diagnostic (AXg), Recognising Textual Entailment (RTE), Swedish CB, and SWEDN. Bias can be harmful and it is known to be common in data, which ML models learn from. In order to mitigate bias in data, it is crucial to be able to estimate it objectively. We use bipol, a novel multi-axes bias metric with explainability, to estimate and explain how much bias exists in these datasets. Multilingual, multi-axes bias evaluation is not very common. Hence, we also contribute a new, large Swedish bias-labelled dataset (of 2 million samples), translated from the English version and train the SotA mT5 model on it. In addition, we contribute new multi-axes lexica for bias detection in Swedish. We make the codes, model, and new dataset publicly available.

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Masakhane-Afrisenti at SemEval-2023 Task 12: Sentiment Analysis using Afro-centric Language Models and Adapters for Low-resource African Languages
Israel Abebe Azime | Sana Al-azzawi | Atnafu Lambebo Tonja | Iyanuoluwa Shode | Jesujoba Alabi | Ayodele Awokoya | Mardiyyah Oduwole | Tosin Adewumi | Samuel Fanijo | Awosan Oyinkansola
Proceedings of the 17th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2023)

Detecting harmful content on social media plat-forms is crucial in preventing the negative ef-fects these posts can have on social media users. This paper presents our methodology for tack-ling task 10 from SemEval23, which focuseson detecting and classifying online sexism insocial media posts. We constructed our solu-tion using an ensemble of transformer-basedmodels (that have been fine-tuned; BERTweet,RoBERTa, and DeBERTa). To alleviate the var-ious issues caused by the class imbalance inthe dataset provided and improve the general-ization of our model, our framework employsdata augmentation and semi-supervised learn-ing. Specifically, we use back-translation fordata augmentation in two scenarios: augment-ing the underrepresented class and augment-ing all classes. In this study, we analyze theimpact of these different strategies on the sys-tem’s overall performance and determine whichtechnique is the most effective. Extensive ex-periments demonstrate the efficacy of our ap-proach. For sub-task A, the system achievedan F1-score of 0.8613. The source code to re-produce the proposed solutions is available onGithub

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NLP-LTU at SemEval-2023 Task 10: The Impact of Data Augmentation and Semi-Supervised Learning Techniques on Text Classification Performance on an Imbalanced Dataset
Sana Al-Azzawi | György Kovács | Filip Nilsson | Tosin Adewumi | Marcus Liwicki
Proceedings of the 17th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2023)

In this paper, we propose a methodology fortask 10 of SemEval23, focusing on detectingand classifying online sexism in social me-dia posts. The task is tackling a serious is-sue, as detecting harmful content on socialmedia platforms is crucial for mitigating theharm of these posts on users. Our solutionfor this task is based on an ensemble of fine-tuned transformer-based models (BERTweet,RoBERTa, and DeBERTa). To alleviate prob-lems related to class imbalance, and to improvethe generalization capability of our model, wealso experiment with data augmentation andsemi-supervised learning. In particular, fordata augmentation, we use back-translation, ei-ther on all classes, or on the underrepresentedclasses only. We analyze the impact of thesestrategies on the overall performance of thepipeline through extensive experiments. whilefor semi-supervised learning, we found thatwith a substantial amount of unlabelled, in-domain data available, semi-supervised learn-ing can enhance the performance of certainmodels. Our proposed method (for which thesource code is available on Github12) attainsan F 1-score of 0.8613 for sub-taskA, whichranked us 10th in the competition.

2022

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ML_LTU at SemEval-2022 Task 4: T5 Towards Identifying Patronizing and Condescending Language
Tosin Adewumi | Lama Alkhaled | Hamam Mokayed | Foteini Liwicki | Marcus Liwicki
Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2022)

This paper describes the system used by the Machine Learning Group of LTU in subtask 1 of the SemEval-2022 Task 4: Patronizing and Condescending Language (PCL) Detection. Our system consists of finetuning a pretrained text-to-text transfer transformer (T5) and innovatively reducing its out-of-class predictions. The main contributions of this paper are 1) the description of the implementation details of the T5 model we used, 2) analysis of the successes & struggles of the model in this task, and 3) ablation studies beyond the official submission to ascertain the relative importance of data split. Our model achieves an F1 score of 0.5452 on the official test set.

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Separating Grains from the Chaff: Using Data Filtering to Improve Multilingual Translation for Low-Resourced African Languages
Idris Abdulmumin | Michael Beukman | Jesujoba Alabi | Chris Chinenye Emezue | Everlyn Chimoto | Tosin Adewumi | Shamsuddeen Muhammad | Mofetoluwa Adeyemi | Oreen Yousuf | Sahib Singh | Tajuddeen Gwadabe
Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Machine Translation (WMT)

We participated in the WMT 2022 Large-Scale Machine Translation Evaluation for the African Languages Shared Task. This work describes our approach, which is based on filtering the given noisy data using a sentence-pair classifier that was built by fine-tuning a pre-trained language model. To train the classifier, we obtain positive samples (i.e. high-quality parallel sentences) from a gold-standard curated dataset and extract negative samples (i.e. low-quality parallel sentences) from automatically aligned parallel data by choosing sentences with low alignment scores. Our final machine translation model was then trained on filtered data, instead of the entire noisy dataset. We empirically validate our approach by evaluating on two common datasets and show that data filtering generally improves overall translation quality, in some cases even significantly.

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MasakhaNER 2.0: Africa-centric Transfer Learning for Named Entity Recognition
David Adelani | Graham Neubig | Sebastian Ruder | Shruti Rijhwani | Michael Beukman | Chester Palen-Michel | Constantine Lignos | Jesujoba Alabi | Shamsuddeen Muhammad | Peter Nabende | Cheikh M. Bamba Dione | Andiswa Bukula | Rooweither Mabuya | Bonaventure F. P. Dossou | Blessing Sibanda | Happy Buzaaba | Jonathan Mukiibi | Godson Kalipe | Derguene Mbaye | Amelia Taylor | Fatoumata Kabore | Chris Chinenye Emezue | Anuoluwapo Aremu | Perez Ogayo | Catherine Gitau | Edwin Munkoh-Buabeng | Victoire Memdjokam Koagne | Allahsera Auguste Tapo | Tebogo Macucwa | Vukosi Marivate | Mboning Tchiaze Elvis | Tajuddeen Gwadabe | Tosin Adewumi | Orevaoghene Ahia | Joyce Nakatumba-Nabende | Neo Lerato Mokono | Ignatius Ezeani | Chiamaka Chukwuneke | Mofetoluwa Oluwaseun Adeyemi | Gilles Quentin Hacheme | Idris Abdulmumin | Odunayo Ogundepo | Oreen Yousuf | Tatiana Moteu | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

African languages are spoken by over a billion people, but they are under-represented in NLP research and development. Multiple challenges exist, including the limited availability of annotated training and evaluation datasets as well as the lack of understanding of which settings, languages, and recently proposed methods like cross-lingual transfer will be effective. In this paper, we aim to move towards solutions for these challenges, focusing on the task of named entity recognition (NER). We present the creation of the largest to-date human-annotated NER dataset for 20 African languages. We study the behaviour of state-of-the-art cross-lingual transfer methods in an Africa-centric setting, empirically demonstrating that the choice of source transfer language significantly affects performance. While much previous work defaults to using English as the source language, our results show that choosing the best transfer language improves zero-shot F1 scores by an average of 14% over 20 languages as compared to using English.

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GEMv2: Multilingual NLG Benchmarking in a Single Line of Code
Sebastian Gehrmann | Abhik Bhattacharjee | Abinaya Mahendiran | Alex Wang | Alexandros Papangelis | Aman Madaan | Angelina Mcmillan-major | Anna Shvets | Ashish Upadhyay | Bernd Bohnet | Bingsheng Yao | Bryan Wilie | Chandra Bhagavatula | Chaobin You | Craig Thomson | Cristina Garbacea | Dakuo Wang | Daniel Deutsch | Deyi Xiong | Di Jin | Dimitra Gkatzia | Dragomir Radev | Elizabeth Clark | Esin Durmus | Faisal Ladhak | Filip Ginter | Genta Indra Winata | Hendrik Strobelt | Hiroaki Hayashi | Jekaterina Novikova | Jenna Kanerva | Jenny Chim | Jiawei Zhou | Jordan Clive | Joshua Maynez | João Sedoc | Juraj Juraska | Kaustubh Dhole | Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | Laura Perez Beltrachini | Leonardo F . R. Ribeiro | Lewis Tunstall | Li Zhang | Mahim Pushkarna | Mathias Creutz | Michael White | Mihir Sanjay Kale | Moussa Kamal Eddine | Nico Daheim | Nishant Subramani | Ondrej Dusek | Paul Pu Liang | Pawan Sasanka Ammanamanchi | Qi Zhu | Ratish Puduppully | Reno Kriz | Rifat Shahriyar | Ronald Cardenas | Saad Mahamood | Salomey Osei | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Sanja Štajner | Sebastien Montella | Shailza Jolly | Simon Mille | Tahmid Hasan | Tianhao Shen | Tosin Adewumi | Vikas Raunak | Vipul Raheja | Vitaly Nikolaev | Vivian Tsai | Yacine Jernite | Ying Xu | Yisi Sang | Yixin Liu | Yufang Hou
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

Evaluations in machine learning rarely use the latest metrics, datasets, or human evaluation in favor of remaining compatible with prior work. The compatibility, often facilitated through leaderboards, thus leads to outdated but standardized evaluation practices. We pose that the standardization is taking place in the wrong spot. Evaluation infrastructure should enable researchers to use the latest methods and what should be standardized instead is how to incorporate these new evaluation advances. We introduce GEMv2, the new version of the Generation, Evaluation, and Metrics Benchmark which uses a modular infrastructure for dataset, model, and metric developers to benefit from each other’s work. GEMv2 supports 40 documented datasets in 51 languages, ongoing online evaluation for all datasets, and our interactive tools make it easier to add new datasets to the living benchmark.

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Potential Idiomatic Expression (PIE)-English: Corpus for Classes of Idioms
Tosin Adewumi | Roshanak Vadoodi | Aparajita Tripathy | Konstantina Nikolaido | Foteini Liwicki | Marcus Liwicki
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

We present a fairly large, Potential Idiomatic Expression (PIE) dataset for Natural Language Processing (NLP) in English. The challenges with NLP systems with regards to tasks such as Machine Translation (MT), word sense disambiguation (WSD) and information retrieval make it imperative to have a labelled idioms dataset with classes such as it is in this work. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first idioms corpus with classes of idioms beyond the literal and the general idioms classification. In particular, the following classes are labelled in the dataset: metaphor, simile, euphemism, parallelism, personification, oxymoron, paradox, hyperbole, irony and literal. We obtain an overall inter-annotator agreement (IAA) score, between two independent annotators, of 88.89%. Many past efforts have been limited in the corpus size and classes of samples but this dataset contains over 20,100 samples with almost 1,200 cases of idioms (with their meanings) from 10 classes (or senses). The corpus may also be extended by researchers to meet specific needs. The corpus has part of speech (PoS) tagging from the NLTK library. Classification experiments performed on the corpus to obtain a baseline and comparison among three common models, including the BERT model, give good results. We also make publicly available the corpus and the relevant codes for working with it for NLP tasks.

2021

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MasakhaNER: Named Entity Recognition for African Languages
David Ifeoluwa Adelani | Jade Abbott | Graham Neubig | Daniel D’souza | Julia Kreutzer | Constantine Lignos | Chester Palen-Michel | Happy Buzaaba | Shruti Rijhwani | Sebastian Ruder | Stephen Mayhew | Israel Abebe Azime | Shamsuddeen H. Muhammad | Chris Chinenye Emezue | Joyce Nakatumba-Nabende | Perez Ogayo | Aremu Anuoluwapo | Catherine Gitau | Derguene Mbaye | Jesujoba Alabi | Seid Muhie Yimam | Tajuddeen Rabiu Gwadabe | Ignatius Ezeani | Rubungo Andre Niyongabo | Jonathan Mukiibi | Verrah Otiende | Iroro Orife | Davis David | Samba Ngom | Tosin Adewumi | Paul Rayson | Mofetoluwa Adeyemi | Gerald Muriuki | Emmanuel Anebi | Chiamaka Chukwuneke | Nkiruka Odu | Eric Peter Wairagala | Samuel Oyerinde | Clemencia Siro | Tobius Saul Bateesa | Temilola Oloyede | Yvonne Wambui | Victor Akinode | Deborah Nabagereka | Maurice Katusiime | Ayodele Awokoya | Mouhamadane MBOUP | Dibora Gebreyohannes | Henok Tilaye | Kelechi Nwaike | Degaga Wolde | Abdoulaye Faye | Blessing Sibanda | Orevaoghene Ahia | Bonaventure F. P. Dossou | Kelechi Ogueji | Thierno Ibrahima DIOP | Abdoulaye Diallo | Adewale Akinfaderin | Tendai Marengereke | Salomey Osei
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 9

We take a step towards addressing the under- representation of the African continent in NLP research by bringing together different stakeholders to create the first large, publicly available, high-quality dataset for named entity recognition (NER) in ten African languages. We detail the characteristics of these languages to help researchers and practitioners better understand the challenges they pose for NER tasks. We analyze our datasets and conduct an extensive empirical evaluation of state- of-the-art methods across both supervised and transfer learning settings. Finally, we release the data, code, and models to inspire future research on African NLP.1

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The GEM Benchmark: Natural Language Generation, its Evaluation and Metrics
Sebastian Gehrmann | Tosin Adewumi | Karmanya Aggarwal | Pawan Sasanka Ammanamanchi | Anuoluwapo Aremu | Antoine Bosselut | Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | Miruna-Adriana Clinciu | Dipanjan Das | Kaustubh Dhole | Wanyu Du | Esin Durmus | Ondřej Dušek | Chris Chinenye Emezue | Varun Gangal | Cristina Garbacea | Tatsunori Hashimoto | Yufang Hou | Yacine Jernite | Harsh Jhamtani | Yangfeng Ji | Shailza Jolly | Mihir Kale | Dhruv Kumar | Faisal Ladhak | Aman Madaan | Mounica Maddela | Khyati Mahajan | Saad Mahamood | Bodhisattwa Prasad Majumder | Pedro Henrique Martins | Angelina McMillan-Major | Simon Mille | Emiel van Miltenburg | Moin Nadeem | Shashi Narayan | Vitaly Nikolaev | Andre Niyongabo Rubungo | Salomey Osei | Ankur Parikh | Laura Perez-Beltrachini | Niranjan Ramesh Rao | Vikas Raunak | Juan Diego Rodriguez | Sashank Santhanam | João Sedoc | Thibault Sellam | Samira Shaikh | Anastasia Shimorina | Marco Antonio Sobrevilla Cabezudo | Hendrik Strobelt | Nishant Subramani | Wei Xu | Diyi Yang | Akhila Yerukola | Jiawei Zhou
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Natural Language Generation, Evaluation, and Metrics (GEM 2021)

We introduce GEM, a living benchmark for natural language Generation (NLG), its Evaluation, and Metrics. Measuring progress in NLG relies on a constantly evolving ecosystem of automated metrics, datasets, and human evaluation standards. Due to this moving target, new models often still evaluate on divergent anglo-centric corpora with well-established, but flawed, metrics. This disconnect makes it challenging to identify the limitations of current models and opportunities for progress. Addressing this limitation, GEM provides an environment in which models can easily be applied to a wide set of tasks and in which evaluation strategies can be tested. Regular updates to the benchmark will help NLG research become more multilingual and evolve the challenge alongside models. This paper serves as the description of the data for the 2021 shared task at the associated GEM Workshop.
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