Tu Anh Nguyen

Also published as: Tu-Anh Nguyen


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Text-Free Prosody-Aware Generative Spoken Language Modeling
Eugene Kharitonov | Ann Lee | Adam Polyak | Yossi Adi | Jade Copet | Kushal Lakhotia | Tu Anh Nguyen | Morgane Riviere | Abdelrahman Mohamed | Emmanuel Dupoux | Wei-Ning Hsu
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Speech pre-training has primarily demonstrated efficacy on classification tasks, while its capability of generating novel speech, similar to how GPT-2 can generate coherent paragraphs, has barely been explored. Generative Spoken Language Modeling (GSLM) (CITATION) is the only prior work addressing the generative aspect of speech pre-training, which builds a text-free language model using discovered units. Unfortunately, because the units used in GSLM discard most prosodic information, GSLM fails to leverage prosody for better comprehension and does not generate expressive speech. In this work, we present a prosody-aware generative spoken language model (pGSLM). It is composed of a multi-stream transformer language model (MS-TLM) of speech, represented as discovered unit and prosodic feature streams, and an adapted HiFi-GAN model converting MS-TLM outputs to waveforms. Experimental results show that the pGSLM can utilize prosody to improve both prosody and content modeling, and also generate natural, meaningful, and coherent speech given a spoken prompt. Audio samples can be found at https://speechbot.github.io/pgslm. Codes and models are available at https://github.com/pytorch/fairseq/tree/main/examples/textless_nlp/pgslm.


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On Generative Spoken Language Modeling from Raw Audio
Kushal Lakhotia | Eugene Kharitonov | Wei-Ning Hsu | Yossi Adi | Adam Polyak | Benjamin Bolte | Tu-Anh Nguyen | Jade Copet | Alexei Baevski | Abdelrahman Mohamed | Emmanuel Dupoux
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 9

Abstract We introduce Generative Spoken Language Modeling, the task of learning the acoustic and linguistic characteristics of a language from raw audio (no text, no labels), and a set of metrics to automatically evaluate the learned representations at acoustic and linguistic levels for both encoding and generation. We set up baseline systems consisting of a discrete speech encoder (returning pseudo-text units), a generative language model (trained on pseudo- text), and a speech decoder (generating a waveform from pseudo-text) all trained without supervision and validate the proposed metrics with human evaluation. Across 3 speech encoders (CPC, wav2vec 2.0, HuBERT), we find that the number of discrete units (50, 100, or 200) matters in a task-dependent and encoder- dependent way, and that some combinations approach text-based systems.1