Tulika Bose


2022

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Domain Classification-based Source-specific Term Penalization for Domain Adaptation in Hate-speech Detection
Tulika Bose | Nikolaos Aletras | Irina Illina | Dominique Fohr
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

State-of-the-art approaches for hate-speech detection usually exhibit poor performance in out-of-domain settings. This occurs, typically, due to classifiers overemphasizing source-specific information that negatively impacts its domain invariance. Prior work has attempted to penalize terms related to hate-speech from manually curated lists using feature attribution methods, which quantify the importance assigned to input terms by the classifier when making a prediction. We, instead, propose a domain adaptation approach that automatically extracts and penalizes source-specific terms using a domain classifier, which learns to differentiate between domains, and feature-attribution scores for hate-speech classes, yielding consistent improvements in cross-domain evaluation.

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Dynamically Refined Regularization for Improving Cross-corpora Hate Speech Detection
Tulika Bose | Nikolaos Aletras | Irina Illina | Dominique Fohr
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Hate speech classifiers exhibit substantial performance degradation when evaluated on datasets different from the source. This is due to learning spurious correlations between words that are not necessarily relevant to hateful language, and hate speech labels from the training corpus. Previous work has attempted to mitigate this problem by regularizing specific terms from pre-defined static dictionaries. While this has been demonstrated to improve the generalizability of classifiers, the coverage of such methods is limited and the dictionaries require regular manual updates from human experts. In this paper, we propose to automatically identify and reduce spurious correlations using attribution methods with dynamic refinement of the list of terms that need to be regularized during training. Our approach is flexible and improves the cross-corpora performance over previous work independently and in combination with pre-defined dictionaries.

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Transferring Knowledge via Neighborhood-Aware Optimal Transport for Low-Resource Hate Speech Detection
Tulika Bose | Irina Illina | Dominique Fohr
Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 12th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The concerning rise of hateful content on online platforms has increased the attention towards automatic hate speech detection, commonly formulated as a supervised classification task. State-of-the-art deep learning-based approaches usually require a substantial amount of labeled resources for training. However, annotating hate speech resources is expensive, time-consuming, and often harmful to the annotators. This creates a pressing need to transfer knowledge from the existing labeled resources to low-resource hate speech corpora with the goal of improving system performance. For this, neighborhood-based frameworks have been shown to be effective. However, they have limited flexibility. In our paper, we propose a novel training strategy that allows flexible modeling of the relative proximity of neighbors retrieved from a resource-rich corpus to learn the amount of transfer. In particular, we incorporate neighborhood information with Optimal Transport, which permits exploiting the geometry of the data embedding space. By aligning the joint embedding and label distributions of neighbors, we demonstrate substantial improvements over strong baselines, in low-resource scenarios, on different publicly available hate speech corpora.

2021

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Generalisability of Topic Models in Cross-corpora Abusive Language Detection
Tulika Bose | Irina Illina | Dominique Fohr
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on NLP for Internet Freedom: Censorship, Disinformation, and Propaganda

Rapidly changing social media content calls for robust and generalisable abuse detection models. However, the state-of-the-art supervised models display degraded performance when they are evaluated on abusive comments that differ from the training corpus. We investigate if the performance of supervised models for cross-corpora abuse detection can be improved by incorporating additional information from topic models, as the latter can infer the latent topic mixtures from unseen samples. In particular, we combine topical information with representations from a model tuned for classifying abusive comments. Our performance analysis reveals that topic models are able to capture abuse-related topics that can transfer across corpora, and result in improved generalisability.

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Unsupervised Domain Adaptation in Cross-corpora Abusive Language Detection
Tulika Bose | Irina Illina | Dominique Fohr
Proceedings of the Ninth International Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media

The state-of-the-art abusive language detection models report great in-corpus performance, but underperform when evaluated on abusive comments that differ from the training scenario. As human annotation involves substantial time and effort, models that can adapt to newly collected comments can prove to be useful. In this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of several Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (UDA) approaches for the task of cross-corpora abusive language detection. In comparison, we adapt a variant of the BERT model, trained on large-scale abusive comments, using Masked Language Model (MLM) fine-tuning. Our evaluation shows that the UDA approaches result in sub-optimal performance, while the MLM fine-tuning does better in the cross-corpora setting. Detailed analysis reveals the limitations of the UDA approaches and emphasizes the need to build efficient adaptation methods for this task.