Ukyo Honda


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A Single Linear Layer Yields Task-Adapted Low-Rank Matrices
Hwichan Kim | Shota Sasaki | Sho Hoshino | Ukyo Honda
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Low-Rank Adaptation (LoRA) is a widely used Parameter-Efficient Fine-Tuning (PEFT) method that updates an initial weight matrix W0 with a delta matrix 𝛥 W consisted by two low-rank matrices A and B. A previous study suggested that there is correlation between W0 and 𝛥 W. In this study, we aim to delve deeper into relationships between W0 and low-rank matrices A and B to further comprehend the behavior of LoRA. In particular, we analyze a conversion matrix that transform W0 into low-rank matrices, which encapsulates information about the relationships. Our analysis reveals that the conversion matrices are similar across each layer. Inspired by these findings, we hypothesize that a single linear layer, which takes each layer’s W0 as input, can yield task-adapted low-rank matrices. To confirm this hypothesis, we devise a method named Conditionally Parameterized LoRA (CondLoRA) that updates initial weight matrices with low-rank matrices derived from a single linear layer. Our empirical results show that CondLoRA maintains a performance on par with LoRA, despite the fact that the trainable parameters of CondLoRA are fewer than those of LoRA. Therefore, we conclude that “a single linear layer yields task-adapted low-rank matrices.” The code used in our experiments is available at

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CAMERA³: An Evaluation Dataset for Controllable Ad Text Generation in Japanese
Go Inoue | Akihiko Kato | Masato Mita | Ukyo Honda | Peinan Zhang
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Ad text generation is the task of creating compelling text from an advertising asset that describes products or services, such as a landing page. In advertising, diversity plays an important role in enhancing the effectiveness of an ad text, mitigating a phenomenon called “ad fatigue,” where users become disengaged due to repetitive exposure to the same advertisement. Despite numerous efforts in ad text generation, the aspect of diversifying ad texts has received limited attention, particularly in non-English languages like Japanese. To address this, we present CAMERA³, an evaluation dataset for controllable text generation in the advertising domain in Japanese. Our dataset includes 3,980 ad texts written by expert annotators, taking into account various aspects of ad appeals. We make CAMERA³ publicly available, allowing researchers to examine the capabilities of recent NLG models in controllable text generation in a real-world scenario.

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On the True Distribution Approximation of Minimum Bayes-Risk Decoding
Atsumoto Ohashi | Ukyo Honda | Tetsuro Morimura | Yuu Jinnai
Proceedings of the 2024 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Minimum Bayes-risk (MBR) decoding has recently gained renewed attention in text generation.MBR decoding considers texts sampled from a model as pseudo-references and selects the text with the highest similarity to the others.Therefore, sampling is one of the key elements of MBR decoding, and previous studies reported that the performance varies by sampling methods.From a theoretical standpoint, this performance variation is likely tied to how closely the samples approximate the true distribution of references.However, this approximation has not been the subject of in-depth study.In this study, we propose using anomaly detection to measure the degree of approximation.We first closely examine the performance variation and then show that previous hypotheses about samples do not correlate well with the variation, but our introduced anomaly scores do.The results are the first to empirically support the link between the performance and the core assumption of MBR decoding.

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Reinforcement Learning for Edit-Based Non-Autoregressive Neural Machine Translation
Hao Wang | Tetsuro Morimura | Ukyo Honda | Daisuke Kawahara
Proceedings of the 2024 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (Volume 4: Student Research Workshop)

Non-autoregressive (NAR) language models are known for their low latency in neural machine translation (NMT). However, a performance gap exists between NAR and autoregressive models due to the large decoding space and difficulty in capturing dependency between target words accurately. Compounding this, preparing appropriate training data for NAR models is a non-trivial task, often exacerbating exposure bias. To address these challenges, we apply reinforcement learning (RL) to Levenshtein Transformer, a representative edit-based NAR model, demonstrating that RL with self-generated data can enhance the performance of edit-based NAR models. We explore two RL approaches: stepwise reward maximization and episodic reward maximization. We discuss the respective pros and cons of these two approaches and empirically verify them. Moreover, we experimentally investigate the impact of temperature setting on performance, confirming the importance of proper temperature setting for NAR models’ training.


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Law Retrieval with Supervised Contrastive Learning Using the Hierarchical Structure of Law
Jungmin Choi | Ukyo Honda | Taro Watanabe | Hiroki Ouchi | Kentaro Inui
Proceedings of the 36th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation


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Removing Word-Level Spurious Alignment between Images and Pseudo-Captions in Unsupervised Image Captioning
Ukyo Honda | Yoshitaka Ushiku | Atsushi Hashimoto | Taro Watanabe | Yuji Matsumoto
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Unsupervised image captioning is a challenging task that aims at generating captions without the supervision of image-sentence pairs, but only with images and sentences drawn from different sources and object labels detected from the images. In previous work, pseudo-captions, i.e., sentences that contain the detected object labels, were assigned to a given image. The focus of the previous work was on the alignment of input images and pseudo-captions at the sentence level. However, pseudo-captions contain many words that are irrelevant to a given image. In this work, we investigate the effect of removing mismatched words from image-sentence alignment to determine how they make this task difficult. We propose a simple gating mechanism that is trained to align image features with only the most reliable words in pseudo-captions: the detected object labels. The experimental results show that our proposed method outperforms the previous methods without introducing complex sentence-level learning objectives. Combined with the sentence-level alignment method of previous work, our method further improves its performance. These results confirm the importance of careful alignment in word-level details.


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Pruning Basic Elements for Better Automatic Evaluation of Summaries
Ukyo Honda | Tsutomu Hirao | Masaaki Nagata
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

We propose a simple but highly effective automatic evaluation measure of summarization, pruned Basic Elements (pBE). Although the BE concept is widely used for the automated evaluation of summaries, its weakness is that it redundantly matches basic elements. To avoid this redundancy, pBE prunes basic elements by (1) disregarding frequency count of basic elements and (2) reducing semantically overlapped basic elements based on word similarity. Even though it is simple, pBE outperforms ROUGE in DUC datasets in most cases and achieves the highest rank correlation coefficient in TAC 2011 AESOP task.