We investigate different systems for extracting mathematical entities from English texts in the mathematical field of category theory as a first step for constructing a mathematical knowledge graph. We consider four different term extractors and compare their results. This small experiment showcases some of the issues with the construction and evaluation of terms extracted from noisy domain text. We also make available two open corpora in research mathematics, in particular in category theory: a small corpus of 755 abstracts from the journal TAC (3188 sentences), and a larger corpus from the nLab community wiki (15,000 sentences)
Despite the advances in Natural Language Inference through the training of massive deep models, recent work has revealed the generalization difficulties of such models, which fail to perform on adversarial datasets with challenging linguistic phenomena. Such phenomena, however, can be handled well by symbolic systems. Thus, we propose Hy-NLI, a hybrid system that learns to identify an NLI pair as linguistically challenging or not. Based on that, it uses its symbolic or deep learning component, respectively, to make the final inference decision. We show how linguistically less complex cases are best solved by robust state-of-the-art models, like BERT and XLNet, while hard linguistic phenomena are best handled by our implemented symbolic engine. Our thorough evaluation shows that our hybrid system achieves state-of-the-art performance across mainstream and adversarial datasets and opens the way for further research into the hybrid direction.
Advances in Natural Language Inference (NLI) have helped us understand what state-of-the-art models really learn and what their generalization power is. Recent research has revealed some heuristics and biases of these models. However, to date, there is no systematic effort to capitalize on those insights through a system that uses these to explain the NLI decisions. To this end, we propose XplaiNLI, an eXplainable, interactive, visualization interface that computes NLI with different methods and provides explanations for the decisions made by the different approaches.
Lexical resources need to be as complete as possible. Very little work seems to have been done on adverbs, the smallest part of speech class in Princeton WordNet counting the number of synsets. Amongst adverbs, manner adverbs ending in ‘-ly’ seem the easiest to work with, as their meaning is almost the same as the one of the associated adjective. This phenomenon seems to be parallel in English and Portuguese, where these manner adverbs finish in the suffix ‘-mente’. We use this correspondence to improve the coverage of adverbs in the lexical resource OpenWordNet-PT, a wordnet for Portuguese.
Three broad approaches have been attempted to combine distributional and structural/symbolic aspects to construct meaning representations: a) injecting linguistic features into distributional representations, b) injecting distributional features into symbolic representations or c) combining structural and distributional features in the final representation. This work focuses on an example of the third and less studied approach: it extends the Graphical Knowledge Representation (GKR) to include distributional features and proposes a division of semantic labour between the distributional and structural/symbolic features. We propose two extensions of GKR that clearly show this division and empirically test one of the proposals on an NLI dataset with hard compositional pairs.
The vast amount of research introducing new corpora and techniques for semi-automatically annotating corpora shows the important role that datasets play in today’s research, especially in the machine learning community. This rapid development raises concerns about the quality of the datasets created and consequently of the models trained, as recently discussed with respect to the Natural Language Inference (NLI) task. In this work we conduct an annotation experiment based on a small subset of the SICK corpus. The experiment reveals several problems in the annotation guidelines, and various challenges of the NLI task itself. Our quantitative evaluation of the experiment allows us to assign our empirical observations to specific linguistic phenomena and leads us to recommendations for future annotation tasks, for NLI and possibly for other tasks.
Vector representations of words have seen an increasing success over the past years in a variety of NLP tasks. While there seems to be a consensus about the usefulness of word embeddings and how to learn them, it is still unclear which representations can capture the meaning of phrases or even whole sentences. Recent work has shown that simple operations outperform more complex deep architectures. In this work, we propose two novel constraints for computing noun phrase vector representations. First, we propose that the semantic and not the syntactic contribution of each component of a noun phrase should be considered, so that the resulting composed vectors express more of the phrase meaning. Second, the composition process of the two phrase vectors should apply suitable dimensions’ selection in a way that specific semantic features captured by the phrase’s meaning become more salient. Our proposed methods are compared to 11 other approaches, including popular baselines and a neural net architecture, and are evaluated across 6 tasks and 2 datasets. Our results show that these constraints lead to more expressive phrase representations and can be applied to other state-of-the-art methods to improve their performance.
This paper describes work extending Princeton WordNet to the domain of geological texts, associated with the time periods of the geological eras of the Earth History. We intend this extension to be considered as an example for any other domain extension that we might want to pursue. To provide this extension, we first produce a textual version of Princeton WordNet. Then we map a fragment of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) ontologies to WordNet and create the appropriate new synsets. We check the extended ontology on a small corpus of sentences from Gas and Oil technical reports and realize that more work needs to be done, as we need new words, new senses and new compounds in our extended WordNet.
The Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL) features a shared task, in which participants train and test their learning systems on the same data sets. In 2017, the task was devoted to learning dependency parsers for a large number of languages, in a real-world setting without any gold-standard annotation on input. All test sets followed a unified annotation scheme, namely that of Universal Dependencies. In this paper, we define the task and evaluation methodology, describe how the data sets were prepared, report and analyze the main results, and provide a brief categorization of the different approaches of the participating systems.
This paper describes work on incorporating Princenton’s WordNet morphosemantics links to the fabric of the Portuguese OpenWordNet-PT. Morphosemantic links are relations between verbs and derivationally related nouns that are semantically typed (such as for tune-tuner ― in Portuguese “afinar-afinador” – linked through an “agent” link). Morphosemantic links have been discussed for Princeton’s WordNet for a while, but have not been added to the official database. These links are very useful, they help us to improve our Portuguese WordNet. Thus we discuss the integration of these links in our base and the issues we encountered with the integration.
Semantic relations between words are key to building systems that aim to understand and manipulate language. For English, the “de facto” standard for representing this kind of knowledge is Princeton’s WordNet. Here, we describe the wordnet-like resources currently available for Portuguese: their origins, methods of creation, sizes, and usage restrictions. We start tackling the problem of comparing them, but only in quantitative terms. Finally, we sketch ideas for potential collaboration between some of the projects that produce Portuguese wordnets.
This paper presents NomLex-PT, a lexical resource describing Portuguese nominalizations. NomLex-PT connects verbs to their nominalizations, thereby enabling NLP systems to observe the potential semantic relationships between the two words when analysing a text. NomLex-PT is freely available and encoded in RDF for easy integration with other resources. Most notably, we have integrated NomLex-PT with OpenWordNet-PT, an open Portuguese Wordnet.