Viktor Schlegel


2022

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WLASL-LEX: a Dataset for Recognising Phonological Properties in American Sign Language
Federico Tavella | Viktor Schlegel | Marta Romeo | Aphrodite Galata | Angelo Cangelosi
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Signed Language Processing (SLP) concerns the automated processing of signed languages, the main means of communication of Deaf and hearing impaired individuals. SLP features many different tasks, ranging from sign recognition to translation and production of signed speech, but has been overlooked by the NLP community thus far.In this paper, we bring to attention the task of modelling the phonology of sign languages. We leverage existing resources to construct a large-scale dataset of American Sign Language signs annotated with six different phonological properties. We then conduct an extensive empirical study to investigate whether data-driven end-to-end and feature-based approaches can be optimised to automatically recognise these properties. We find that, despite the inherent challenges of the task, graph-based neural networks that operate over skeleton features extracted from raw videos are able to succeed at the task to a varying degree. Most importantly, we show that this performance pertains even on signs unobserved during training.

2021

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Is the Understanding of Explicit Discourse Relations Required in Machine Reading Comprehension?
Yulong Wu | Viktor Schlegel | Riza Batista-Navarro
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

An in-depth analysis of the level of language understanding required by existing Machine Reading Comprehension (MRC) benchmarks can provide insight into the reading capabilities of machines. In this paper, we propose an ablation-based methodology to assess the extent to which MRC datasets evaluate the understanding of explicit discourse relations. We define seven MRC skills which require the understanding of different discourse relations. We then introduce ablation methods that verify whether these skills are required to succeed on a dataset. By observing the drop in performance of neural MRC models evaluated on the original and the modified dataset, we can measure to what degree the dataset requires these skills, in order to be understood correctly. Experiments on three large-scale datasets with the BERT-base and ALBERT-xxlarge model show that the relative changes for all skills are small (less than 6%). These results imply that most of the answered questions in the examined datasets do not require understanding the discourse structure of the text. To specifically probe for natural language understanding, there is a need to design more challenging benchmarks that can correctly evaluate the intended skills.

2020

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A Framework for Evaluation of Machine Reading Comprehension Gold Standards
Viktor Schlegel | Marco Valentino | Andre Freitas | Goran Nenadic | Riza Batista-Navarro
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Machine Reading Comprehension (MRC) is the task of answering a question over a paragraph of text. While neural MRC systems gain popularity and achieve noticeable performance, issues are being raised with the methodology used to establish their performance, particularly concerning the data design of gold standards that are used to evaluate them. There is but a limited understanding of the challenges present in this data, which makes it hard to draw comparisons and formulate reliable hypotheses. As a first step towards alleviating the problem, this paper proposes a unifying framework to systematically investigate the present linguistic features, required reasoning and background knowledge and factual correctness on one hand, and the presence of lexical cues as a lower bound for the requirement of understanding on the other hand. We propose a qualitative annotation schema for the first and a set of approximative metrics for the latter. In a first application of the framework, we analyse modern MRC gold standards and present our findings: the absence of features that contribute towards lexical ambiguity, the varying factual correctness of the expected answers and the presence of lexical cues, all of which potentially lower the reading comprehension complexity and quality of the evaluation data.

2019

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Identifying Supporting Facts for Multi-hop Question Answering with Document Graph Networks
Mokanarangan Thayaparan | Marco Valentino | Viktor Schlegel | André Freitas
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Workshop on Graph-Based Methods for Natural Language Processing (TextGraphs-13)

Recent advances in reading comprehension have resulted in models that surpass human performance when the answer is contained in a single, continuous passage of text. However, complex Question Answering (QA) typically requires multi-hop reasoning - i.e. the integration of supporting facts from different sources, to infer the correct answer. This paper proposes Document Graph Network (DGN), a message passing architecture for the identification of supporting facts over a graph-structured representation of text. The evaluation on HotpotQA shows that DGN obtains competitive results when compared to a reading comprehension baseline operating on raw text, confirming the relevance of structured representations for supporting multi-hop reasoning.

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DBee: A Database for Creating and Managing Knowledge Graphs and Embeddings
Viktor Schlegel | André Freitas
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Workshop on Graph-Based Methods for Natural Language Processing (TextGraphs-13)

This paper describes DBee, a database to support the construction of data-intensive AI applications. DBee provides a unique data model which operates jointly over large-scale knowledge graphs (KGs) and embedding vector spaces (VSs). This model supports queries which exploit the semantic properties of both types of representations (KGs and VSs). Additionally, DBee aims to facilitate the construction of KGs and VSs, by providing a library of generators, which can be used to create, integrate and transform data into KGs and VSs.