Viktor Schlegel


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Do You Hear The People Sing? Key Point Analysis via Iterative Clustering and Abstractive Summarisation
Hao Li | Viktor Schlegel | Riza Batista-Navarro | Goran Nenadic
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Argument summarisation is a promising but currently under-explored field. Recent work has aimed to provide textual summaries in the form of concise and salient short texts, i.e., key points (KPs), in a task known as Key Point Analysis (KPA). One of the main challenges in KPA is finding high-quality key point candidates from dozens of arguments even in a small corpus. Furthermore, evaluating key points is crucial in ensuring that the automatically generated summaries are useful. Although automatic methods for evaluating summarisation have considerably advanced over the years, they mainly focus on sentence-level comparison, making it difficult to measure the quality of a summary (a set of KPs) as a whole. Aggravating this problem is the fact that human evaluation is costly and unreproducible. To address the above issues, we propose a two-step abstractive summarisation framework based on neural topic modelling with an iterative clustering procedure, to generate key points which are aligned with how humans identify key points. Our experiments show that our framework advances the state of the art in KPA, with performance improvement of up to 14 (absolute) percentage points, in terms of both ROUGE and our own proposed evaluation metrics. Furthermore, we evaluate the generated summaries using a novel set-based evaluation toolkit. Our quantitative analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposed evaluation metrics in assessing the quality of generated KPs. Human evaluation further demonstrates the advantages of our approach and validates that our proposed evaluation metric is more consistent with human judgment than ROUGE scores.

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Are Machine Reading Comprehension Systems Robust to Context Paraphrasing?
Yulong Wu | Viktor Schlegel | Riza Batista-Navarro
Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing and the 3rd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

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A Two-Stage Decoder for Efficient ICD Coding
Thanh-Tung Nguyen | Viktor Schlegel | Abhinav Ramesh Kashyap | Stefan Winkler
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Clinical notes in healthcare facilities are tagged with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) code; a list of classification codes for medical diagnoses and procedures. ICD coding is a challenging multilabel text classification problem due to noisy clinical document inputs and long-tailed label distribution. Recent automated ICD coding efforts improve performance by encoding medical notes and codes with additional data and knowledge bases. However, most of them do not reflect how human coders generate the code: first, the coders select general code categories and then look for specific subcategories that are relevant to a patient’s condition. Inspired by this, we propose a two-stage decoding mechanism to predict ICD codes. Our model uses the hierarchical properties of the codes to split the prediction into two steps: At first, we predict the parent code and then predict the child code based on the previous prediction. Experiments on the public MIMIC-III data set have shown that our model performs well in single-model settings without external data or knowledge.

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Argument mining as a multi-hop generative machine reading comprehension task
Boyang Liu | Viktor Schlegel | Riza Batista-Navarro | Sophia Ananiadou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Argument mining (AM) is a natural language processing task that aims to generate an argumentative graph given an unstructured argumentative text. An argumentative graph that consists of argumentative components and argumentative relations contains completed information of an argument and exhibits the logic of an argument. As the argument structure of an argumentative text can be regarded as an answer to a “why” question, the whole argument structure is therefore similar to the “chain of thought” concept, i.e., the sequence of ideas that lead to a specific conclusion for a given argument (Wei et al., 2022). For argumentative texts in the same specific genre, the “chain of thought” of such texts is usually similar, i.e., in a student essay, there is usually a major claim supported by several claims, and then a number of premises which are related to the claims are included (Eger et al., 2017). In this paper, we propose a new perspective which transfers the argument mining task into a multi-hop reading comprehension task, allowing the model to learn the argument structure as a “chain of thought”. We perform a comprehensive evaluation of our approach on two AM benchmarks and find that we surpass SOTA results. A detailed analysis shows that specifically the “chain of thought” information is helpful for the argument mining task.

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Team:PULSAR at ProbSum 2023:PULSAR: Pre-training with Extracted Healthcare Terms for Summarising Patients’ Problems and Data Augmentation with Black-box Large Language Models
Hao Li | Yuping Wu | Viktor Schlegel | Riza Batista-Navarro | Thanh-Tung Nguyen | Abhinav Ramesh Kashyap | Xiao-Jun Zeng | Daniel Beck | Stefan Winkler | Goran Nenadic
The 22nd Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing and BioNLP Shared Tasks

Medical progress notes play a crucial role in documenting a patient’s hospital journey, including his or her condition, treatment plan, and any updates for healthcare providers. Automatic summarisation of a patient’s problems in the form of a “problem list” can aid stakeholders in understanding a patient’s condition, reducing workload and cognitive bias. BioNLP 2023 Shared Task 1A focusses on generating a list of diagnoses and problems from the provider’s progress notes during hospitalisation. In this paper, we introduce our proposed approach to this task, which integrates two complementary components. One component employs large language models (LLMs) for data augmentation; the other is an abstractive summarisation LLM with a novel pre-training objective for generating the patients’ problems summarised as a list. Our approach was ranked second among all submissions to the shared task. The performance of our model on the development and test datasets shows that our approach is more robust on unknown data, with an improvement of up to 3.1 points over the same size of the larger model.

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Entity Coreference and Co-occurrence Aware Argument Mining from Biomedical Literature
Boyang Liu | Viktor Schlegel | Riza Batista-navarro | Sophia Ananiadou
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Discourse (CODI 2023)

Biomedical argument mining (BAM) aims at automatically identifying the argumentative structure in biomedical texts. However, identifying and classifying argumentative relations (AR) between argumentative components (AC) is challenging since it not only needs to understand the semantics of ACs but also need to capture the interactions between them. We argue that entities can serve as bridges that connect different ACs since entities and their mentions convey significant semantic information in biomedical argumentation. For example, it is common that related AC pairs share a common entity. Capturing such entity information can be beneficial for the Relation Identification (RI) task. In order to incorporate this entity information into BAM, we propose an Entity Coreference and Co-occurrence aware Argument Mining (ECCAM) framework based on an edge-oriented graph model for BAM. We evaluate our model on a benchmark dataset and from the experimental results we find that our method improves upon state-of-the-art methods.

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MMT’s Submission for the WMT 2023 Quality Estimation Shared Task
Yulong Wu | Viktor Schlegel | Daniel Beck | Riza Batista-Navarro
Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper presents our submission to the WMT 2023 Quality Estimation (QE) shared task 1 (sentence-level subtask). We propose a straightforward training data augmentation approach aimed at improving the correlation between QE model predictions and human quality assessments. Utilising eleven data augmentation approaches and six distinct language pairs, we systematically create augmented training sets by individually applying each method to the original training set of each respective language pair. By evaluating the performance gap between the model before and after training on the augmented dataset, as measured on the development set, we assess the effectiveness of each augmentation method. Experimental results reveal that synonym replacement via the Paraphrase Database (PPDB) yields the most substantial performance boost for language pairs English-German, English-Marathi and English-Gujarati, while for the remaining language pairs, methods such as contextual word embeddings-based words insertion, back translation, and direct paraphrasing prove to be more effective. Training the model on a more diverse and larger set of samples does confer further performance improvements for certain language pairs, albeit to a marginal extent, and this phenomenon is not universally applicable. At the time of submission, we select the model trained on the augmented dataset constructed using the respective most effective method to generate predictions for the test set in each language pair, except for the English-German. Despite not being highly competitive, our system consistently surpasses the baseline performance on most language pairs and secures a third-place ranking in the English-Marathi.


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WLASL-LEX: a Dataset for Recognising Phonological Properties in American Sign Language
Federico Tavella | Viktor Schlegel | Marta Romeo | Aphrodite Galata | Angelo Cangelosi
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Signed Language Processing (SLP) concerns the automated processing of signed languages, the main means of communication of Deaf and hearing impaired individuals. SLP features many different tasks, ranging from sign recognition to translation and production of signed speech, but has been overlooked by the NLP community thus far. In this paper, we bring to attention the task of modelling the phonology of sign languages. We leverage existing resources to construct a large-scale dataset of American Sign Language signs annotated with six different phonological properties. We then conduct an extensive empirical study to investigate whether data-driven end-to-end and feature-based approaches can be optimised to automatically recognise these properties. We find that, despite the inherent challenges of the task, graph-based neural networks that operate over skeleton features extracted from raw videos are able to succeed at the task to a varying degree. Most importantly, we show that this performance pertains even on signs unobserved during training.

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Can Transformers Reason in Fragments of Natural Language?
Viktor Schlegel | Kamen Pavlov | Ian Pratt-Hartmann
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

State-of-the-art deep-learning-based approaches to Natural Language Processing (NLP) are credited with various capabilities that involve reasoning with natural language texts. %However, reasoning in this setting is often ill-defined and shallow. In this paper we carry out a large-scale empirical study investigating the detection of formally valid inferences in controlled fragments of natural language for which the satisfiability problem becomes increasingly complex. We find that, while transformer-based language models perform surprisingly well in these scenarios, a deeper analysis reveals that they appear to overfit to superficial patterns in the data rather than acquiring the logical principles governing the reasoning in these fragments.

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‘Am I the Bad One’? Predicting the Moral Judgement of the Crowd Using Pre–trained Language Models
Areej Alhassan | Jinkai Zhang | Viktor Schlegel
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Natural language processing (NLP) has been shown to perform well in various tasks, such as answering questions, ascertaining natural language inference and anomaly detection. However, there are few NLP-related studies that touch upon the moral context conveyed in text. This paper studies whether state-of-the-art, pre-trained language models are capable of passing moral judgments on posts retrieved from a popular Reddit user board. Reddit is a social discussion website and forum where posts are promoted by users through a voting system. In this work, we construct a dataset that can be used for moral judgement tasks by collecting data from the AITA? (Am I the A*******?) subreddit. To model our task, we harnessed the power of pre-trained language models, including BERT, RoBERTa, RoBERTa-large, ALBERT and Longformer. We then fine-tuned these models and evaluated their ability to predict the correct verdict as judged by users for each post in the datasets. RoBERTa showed relative improvements across the three datasets, exhibiting a rate of 87% accuracy and a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.76, while the use of the Longformer model slightly improved the performance when used with longer sequences, achieving 87% accuracy and 0.77 MCC.

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RaFoLa: A Rationale-Annotated Corpus for Detecting Indicators of Forced Labour
Erick Mendez Guzman | Viktor Schlegel | Riza Batista-Navarro
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Forced labour is the most common type of modern slavery, and it is increasingly gaining the attention of the research and social community. Recent studies suggest that artificial intelligence (AI) holds immense potential for augmenting anti-slavery action. However, AI tools need to be developed transparently in cooperation with different stakeholders. Such tools are contingent on the availability and access to domain-specific data, which are scarce due to the near-invisible nature of forced labour. To the best of our knowledge, this paper presents the first openly accessible English corpus annotated for multi-class and multi-label forced labour detection. The corpus consists of 989 news articles retrieved from specialised data sources and annotated according to risk indicators defined by the International Labour Organization (ILO). Each news article was annotated for two aspects: (1) indicators of forced labour as classification labels and (2) snippets of the text that justify labelling decisions. We hope that our data set can help promote research on explainability for multi-class and multi-label text classification. In this work, we explain our process for collecting the data underpinning the proposed corpus, describe our annotation guidelines and present some statistical analysis of its content. Finally, we summarise the results of baseline experiments based on different variants of the Bidirectional Encoder Representation from Transformer (BERT) model.

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Incorporating Zoning Information into Argument Mining from Biomedical Literature
Boyang Liu | Viktor Schlegel | Riza Batista-Navarro | Sophia Ananiadou
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

The goal of text zoning is to segment a text into zones (i.e., Background, Conclusion) that serve distinct functions. Argumentative zoning, a specific text zoning scheme for the scientific domain, is considered as the antecedent for argument mining by many researchers. Surprisingly, however, little work is concerned with exploiting zoning information to improve the performance of argument mining models, despite the relatedness of the two tasks. In this paper, we propose two transformer-based models to incorporate zoning information into argumentative component identification and classification tasks. One model is for the sentence-level argument mining task and the other is for the token-level task. In particular, we add the zoning labels predicted by an off-the-shelf model to the beginning of each sentence, inspired by the convention commonly used biomedical abstracts. Moreover, we employ multi-head attention to transfer the sentence-level zoning information to each token in a sentence. Based on experiment results, we find a significant improvement in F1-scores for both sentence- and token-level tasks. It is worth mentioning that these zoning labels can be obtained with high accuracy by utilising readily available automated methods. Thus, existing argument mining models can be improved by incorporating zoning information without any additional annotation cost.


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Is the Understanding of Explicit Discourse Relations Required in Machine Reading Comprehension?
Yulong Wu | Viktor Schlegel | Riza Batista-Navarro
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

An in-depth analysis of the level of language understanding required by existing Machine Reading Comprehension (MRC) benchmarks can provide insight into the reading capabilities of machines. In this paper, we propose an ablation-based methodology to assess the extent to which MRC datasets evaluate the understanding of explicit discourse relations. We define seven MRC skills which require the understanding of different discourse relations. We then introduce ablation methods that verify whether these skills are required to succeed on a dataset. By observing the drop in performance of neural MRC models evaluated on the original and the modified dataset, we can measure to what degree the dataset requires these skills, in order to be understood correctly. Experiments on three large-scale datasets with the BERT-base and ALBERT-xxlarge model show that the relative changes for all skills are small (less than 6%). These results imply that most of the answered questions in the examined datasets do not require understanding the discourse structure of the text. To specifically probe for natural language understanding, there is a need to design more challenging benchmarks that can correctly evaluate the intended skills.


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A Framework for Evaluation of Machine Reading Comprehension Gold Standards
Viktor Schlegel | Marco Valentino | Andre Freitas | Goran Nenadic | Riza Batista-Navarro
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Machine Reading Comprehension (MRC) is the task of answering a question over a paragraph of text. While neural MRC systems gain popularity and achieve noticeable performance, issues are being raised with the methodology used to establish their performance, particularly concerning the data design of gold standards that are used to evaluate them. There is but a limited understanding of the challenges present in this data, which makes it hard to draw comparisons and formulate reliable hypotheses. As a first step towards alleviating the problem, this paper proposes a unifying framework to systematically investigate the present linguistic features, required reasoning and background knowledge and factual correctness on one hand, and the presence of lexical cues as a lower bound for the requirement of understanding on the other hand. We propose a qualitative annotation schema for the first and a set of approximative metrics for the latter. In a first application of the framework, we analyse modern MRC gold standards and present our findings: the absence of features that contribute towards lexical ambiguity, the varying factual correctness of the expected answers and the presence of lexical cues, all of which potentially lower the reading comprehension complexity and quality of the evaluation data.


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Identifying Supporting Facts for Multi-hop Question Answering with Document Graph Networks
Mokanarangan Thayaparan | Marco Valentino | Viktor Schlegel | André Freitas
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Workshop on Graph-Based Methods for Natural Language Processing (TextGraphs-13)

Recent advances in reading comprehension have resulted in models that surpass human performance when the answer is contained in a single, continuous passage of text. However, complex Question Answering (QA) typically requires multi-hop reasoning - i.e. the integration of supporting facts from different sources, to infer the correct answer. This paper proposes Document Graph Network (DGN), a message passing architecture for the identification of supporting facts over a graph-structured representation of text. The evaluation on HotpotQA shows that DGN obtains competitive results when compared to a reading comprehension baseline operating on raw text, confirming the relevance of structured representations for supporting multi-hop reasoning.

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DBee: A Database for Creating and Managing Knowledge Graphs and Embeddings
Viktor Schlegel | André Freitas
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Workshop on Graph-Based Methods for Natural Language Processing (TextGraphs-13)

This paper describes DBee, a database to support the construction of data-intensive AI applications. DBee provides a unique data model which operates jointly over large-scale knowledge graphs (KGs) and embedding vector spaces (VSs). This model supports queries which exploit the semantic properties of both types of representations (KGs and VSs). Additionally, DBee aims to facilitate the construction of KGs and VSs, by providing a library of generators, which can be used to create, integrate and transform data into KGs and VSs.