Viviana Patti


2022

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Italian NLP for Everyone: Resources and Models from EVALITA to the European Language Grid
Valerio Basile | Cristina Bosco | Michael Fell | Viviana Patti | Rossella Varvara
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

The European Language Grid enables researchers and practitioners to easily distribute and use NLP resources and models, such as corpora and classifiers. We describe in this paper how, during the course of our EVALITA4ELG project, we have integrated datasets and systems for the Italian language. We show how easy it is to use the integrated systems, and demonstrate in case studies how seamless the application of the platform is, providing Italian NLP for everyone.

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APPReddit: a Corpus of Reddit Posts Annotated for Appraisal
Marco Antonio Stranisci | Simona Frenda | Eleonora Ceccaldi | Valerio Basile | Rossana Damiano | Viviana Patti
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Despite the large number of computational resources for emotion recognition, there is a lack of data sets relying on appraisal models. According to Appraisal theories, emotions are the outcome of a multi-dimensional evaluation of events. In this paper, we present APPReddit, the first corpus of non-experimental data annotated according to this theory. After describing its development, we compare our resource with enISEAR, a corpus of events created in an experimental setting and annotated for appraisal. Results show that the two corpora can be mapped notwithstanding different typologies of data and annotations schemes. A SVM model trained on APPReddit predicts four appraisal dimensions without significant loss. Merging both corpora in a single training set increases the prediction of 3 out of 4 dimensions. Such findings pave the way to a better performing classification model for appraisal prediction.

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Counter-TWIT: An Italian Corpus for Online Counterspeech in Ecological Contexts
Pierpaolo Goffredo | Valerio Basile | Bianca Cepollaro | Viviana Patti
Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Online Abuse and Harms (WOAH)

This work describes the process of creating a corpus of Twitter conversations annotated for the presence of counterspeech in response to toxic speech related to axes of discrimination linked to sexism, racism and homophobia. The main novelty is an annotated dataset comprising relevant tweets in their context of occurrence. The corpus is made up of tweets and responses captured by different profiles replying to discriminatory content or objectionably couched news. An annotation scheme was created to make explicit the knowledge on the dimensions of toxic speech and counterspeech.An analysis of the collected and annotated data and of the IAA that emerged during the annotation process is included. Moreover, we report about preliminary experiments on automatic counterspeech detection, based on supervised automatic learning models trained on the new dataset. The results highlight the fundamental role played by the context in this detection task, confirming our intuitions about the importance to collect tweets in their context of occurrence.

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O-Dang! The Ontology of Dangerous Speech Messages
Marco Antonio Stranisci | Simona Frenda | Mirko Lai | Oscar Araque | Alessandra Teresa Cignarella | Valerio Basile | Cristina Bosco | Viviana Patti
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Sentiment Analysis and Linguistic Linked Data

Inside the NLP community there is a considerable amount of language resources created, annotated and released every day with the aim of studying specific linguistic phenomena. Despite a variety of attempts in order to organize such resources has been carried on, a lack of systematic methods and of possible interoperability between resources are still present. Furthermore, when storing linguistic information, still nowadays, the most common practice is the concept of “gold standard”, which is in contrast with recent trends in NLP that aim at stressing the importance of different subjectivities and points of view when training machine learning and deep learning methods. In this paper we present O-Dang!: The Ontology of Dangerous Speech Messages, a systematic and interoperable Knowledge Graph (KG) for the collection of linguistic annotated data. O-Dang! is designed to gather and organize Italian datasets into a structured KG, according to the principles shared within the Linguistic Linked Open Data community. The ontology has also been designed to account a perspectivist approach, since it provides a model for encoding both gold standard and single-annotator labels in the KG. The paper is structured as follows. In Section 1 the motivations of our work are outlined. Section 2 describes the O-Dang! Ontology, that provides a common semantic model for the integration of datasets in the KG. The Ontology Population stage with information about corpora, users, and annotations is presented in Section 3. Finally, in Section 4 an analysis of offensiveness across corpora is provided as a first case study for the resource.

2020

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Annotating Errors and Emotions in Human-Chatbot Interactions in Italian
Manuela Sanguinetti | Alessandro Mazzei | Viviana Patti | Marco Scalerandi | Dario Mana | Rossana Simeoni
Proceedings of the 14th Linguistic Annotation Workshop

This paper describes a novel annotation scheme specifically designed for a customer-service context where written interactions take place between a given user and the chatbot of an Italian telecommunication company. More specifically, the scheme aims to detect and highlight two aspects: the presence of errors in the conversation on both sides (i.e. customer and chatbot) and the “emotional load” of the conversation. This can be inferred from the presence of emotions of some kind (especially negative ones) in the customer messages, and from the possible empathic responses provided by the agent. The dataset annotated according to this scheme is currently used to develop the prototype of a rule-based Natural Language Generation system aimed at improving the chatbot responses and the customer experience overall.

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FlorUniTo@TRAC-2: Retrofitting Word Embeddings on an Abusive Lexicon for Aggressive Language Detection
Anna Koufakou | Valerio Basile | Viviana Patti
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Trolling, Aggression and Cyberbullying

This paper describes our participation to the TRAC-2 Shared Tasks on Aggression Identification. Our team, FlorUniTo, investigated the applicability of using an abusive lexicon to enhance word embeddings towards improving detection of aggressive language. The embeddings used in our paper are word-aligned pre-trained vectors for English, Hindi, and Bengali, to reflect the languages in the shared task data sets. The embeddings are retrofitted to a multilingual abusive lexicon, HurtLex. We experimented with an LSTM model using the original as well as the transformed embeddings and different language and setting variations. Overall, our systems placed toward the middle of the official rankings based on weighted F1 score. However, the results on the development and test sets show promising improvements across languages, especially on the misogynistic aggression sub-task.

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Do You Really Want to Hurt Me? Predicting Abusive Swearing in Social Media
Endang Wahyu Pamungkas | Valerio Basile | Viviana Patti
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Swearing plays an ubiquitous role in everyday conversations among humans, both in oral and textual communication, and occurs frequently in social media texts, typically featured by informal language and spontaneous writing. Such occurrences can be linked to an abusive context, when they contribute to the expression of hatred and to the abusive effect, causing harm and offense. However, swearing is multifaceted and is often used in casual contexts, also with positive social functions. In this study, we explore the phenomenon of swearing in Twitter conversations, taking the possibility of predicting the abusiveness of a swear word in a tweet context as the main investigation perspective. We developed the Twitter English corpus SWAD (Swear Words Abusiveness Dataset), where abusive swearing is manually annotated at the word level. Our collection consists of 1,511 unique swear words from 1,320 tweets. We developed models to automatically predict abusive swearing, to provide an intrinsic evaluation of SWAD and confirm the robustness of the resource. We also present the results of a glass box ablation study in order to investigate which lexical, syntactic, and affective features are more informative towards the automatic prediction of the function of swearing.

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HurtBERT: Incorporating Lexical Features with BERT for the Detection of Abusive Language
Anna Koufakou | Endang Wahyu Pamungkas | Valerio Basile | Viviana Patti
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Online Abuse and Harms

The detection of abusive or offensive remarks in social texts has received significant attention in research. In several related shared tasks, BERT has been shown to be the state-of-the-art. In this paper, we propose to utilize lexical features derived from a hate lexicon towards improving the performance of BERT in such tasks. We explore different ways to utilize the lexical features in the form of lexicon-based encodings at the sentence level or embeddings at the word level. We provide an extensive dataset evaluation that addresses in-domain as well as cross-domain detection of abusive content to render a complete picture. Our results indicate that our proposed models combining BERT with lexical features help improve over a baseline BERT model in many of our in-domain and cross-domain experiments.

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Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Computational Modeling of People's Opinions, Personality, and Emotion's in Social Media
Malvina Nissim | Viviana Patti | Barbara Plank | Esin Durmus
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Computational Modeling of People's Opinions, Personality, and Emotion's in Social Media

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Matching Theory and Data with Personal-ITY: What a Corpus of Italian YouTube Comments Reveals About Personality
Elisa Bassignana | Malvina Nissim | Viviana Patti
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Computational Modeling of People's Opinions, Personality, and Emotion's in Social Media

As a contribution to personality detection in languages other than English, we rely on distant supervision to create Personal-ITY, a novel corpus of YouTube comments in Italian, where authors are labelled with personality traits. The traits are derived from one of the mainstream personality theories in psychology research, named MBTI. Using personality prediction experiments, we (i) study the task of personality prediction in itself on our corpus as well as on TWISTY, a Twitter dataset also annotated with MBTI labels; (ii) carry out an extensive, in-depth analysis of the features used by the classifier, and view them specifically under the light of the original theory that we used to create the corpus in the first place. We observe that no single model is best at personality detection, and that while some traits are easier than others to detect, and also to match back to theory, for other, less frequent traits the picture is much more blurred.

2019

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SemEval-2019 Task 5: Multilingual Detection of Hate Speech Against Immigrants and Women in Twitter
Valerio Basile | Cristina Bosco | Elisabetta Fersini | Debora Nozza | Viviana Patti | Francisco Manuel Rangel Pardo | Paolo Rosso | Manuela Sanguinetti
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

The paper describes the organization of the SemEval 2019 Task 5 about the detection of hate speech against immigrants and women in Spanish and English messages extracted from Twitter. The task is organized in two related classification subtasks: a main binary subtask for detecting the presence of hate speech, and a finer-grained one devoted to identifying further features in hateful contents such as the aggressive attitude and the target harassed, to distinguish if the incitement is against an individual rather than a group. HatEval has been one of the most popular tasks in SemEval-2019 with a total of 108 submitted runs for Subtask A and 70 runs for Subtask B, from a total of 74 different teams. Data provided for the task are described by showing how they have been collected and annotated. Moreover, the paper provides an analysis and discussion about the participant systems and the results they achieved in both subtasks.

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An Impossible Dialogue! Nominal Utterances and Populist Rhetoric in an Italian Twitter Corpus of Hate Speech against Immigrants
Gloria Comandini | Viviana Patti
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Abusive Language Online

The paper proposes an investigation on the role of populist themes and rhetoric in an Italian Twitter corpus of hate speech against immigrants. The corpus had been annotated with four new layers of analysis: Nominal Utterances, that can be seen as consistent with populist rhetoric; In-out-group rhetoric, a very common populist strategy to polarize public opinion; Slogan-like nominal utterances, that may convey the call for severe illiberal policies against immigrants; News, to recognize the role of newspapers (headlines or reference to articles) in the Twitter political discourse on immigration featured by hate speech.

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Cross-domain and Cross-lingual Abusive Language Detection: A Hybrid Approach with Deep Learning and a Multilingual Lexicon
Endang Wahyu Pamungkas | Viviana Patti
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

The development of computational methods to detect abusive language in social media within variable and multilingual contexts has recently gained significant traction. The growing interest is confirmed by the large number of benchmark corpora for different languages developed in the latest years. However, abusive language behaviour is multifaceted and available datasets are featured by different topical focuses. This makes abusive language detection a domain-dependent task, and building a robust system to detect general abusive content a first challenge. Moreover, most resources are available for English, which makes detecting abusive language in low-resource languages a further challenge. We address both challenges by considering ten publicly available datasets across different domains and languages. A hybrid approach with deep learning and a multilingual lexicon to cross-domain and cross-lingual detection of abusive content is proposed and compared with other simpler models. We show that training a system on general abusive language datasets will produce a cross-domain robust system, which can be used to detect other more specific types of abusive content. We also found that using the domain-independent lexicon HurtLex is useful to transfer knowledge between domains and languages. In the cross-lingual experiment, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our jointlearning model also in out-domain scenarios.

2018

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Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Computational Modeling of People’s Opinions, Personality, and Emotions in Social Media
Malvina Nissim | Viviana Patti | Barbara Plank | Claudia Wagner
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Computational Modeling of People’s Opinions, Personality, and Emotions in Social Media

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SemEval 2018 Task 2: Multilingual Emoji Prediction
Francesco Barbieri | Jose Camacho-Collados | Francesco Ronzano | Luis Espinosa-Anke | Miguel Ballesteros | Valerio Basile | Viviana Patti | Horacio Saggion
Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper describes the results of the first Shared Task on Multilingual Emoji Prediction, organized as part of SemEval 2018. Given the text of a tweet, the task consists of predicting the most likely emoji to be used along such tweet. Two subtasks were proposed, one for English and one for Spanish, and participants were allowed to submit a system run to one or both subtasks. In total, 49 teams participated to the English subtask and 22 teams submitted a system run to the Spanish subtask. Evaluation was carried out emoji-wise, and the final ranking was based on macro F-Score. Data and further information about this task can be found at https://competitions.codalab.org/competitions/17344.

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ValenTO at SemEval-2018 Task 3: Exploring the Role of Affective Content for Detecting Irony in English Tweets
Delia Irazú Hernández Farías | Viviana Patti | Paolo Rosso
Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

In this paper we describe the system used by the ValenTO team in the shared task on Irony Detection in English Tweets at SemEval 2018. The system takes as starting point emotIDM, an irony detection model that explores the use of affective features based on a wide range of lexical resources available for English, reflecting different facets of affect. We experimented with different settings, by exploiting different classifiers and features, and participated both to the binary irony detection task and to the task devoted to distinguish among different types of irony. We report on the results obtained by our system both in a constrained setting and unconstrained setting, where we explored the impact of using additional data in the training phase, such as corpora annotated for the presence of irony or sarcasm from the state of the art. Overall, the performance of our system seems to validate the important role that affective information has for identifying ironic content in Twitter.

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#NonDicevoSulSerio at SemEval-2018 Task 3: Exploiting Emojis and Affective Content for Irony Detection in English Tweets
Endang Wahyu Pamungkas | Viviana Patti
Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper describes the participation of the #NonDicevoSulSerio team at SemEval2018-Task3, which focused on Irony Detection in English Tweets and was articulated in two tasks addressing the identification of irony at different levels of granularity. We participated in both tasks proposed: Task A is a classical binary classification task to determine whether a tweet is ironic or not, while Task B is a multiclass classification task devoted to distinguish different types of irony, where systems have to predict one out of four labels describing verbal irony by clash, other verbal irony, situational irony, and non-irony. We addressed both tasks by proposing a model built upon a well-engineered features set involving both syntactic and lexical features, and a wide range of affective-based features, covering different facets of sentiment and emotions. The use of new features for taking advantage of the affective information conveyed by emojis has been analyzed. On this line, we also tried to exploit the possible incongruity between sentiment expressed in the text and in the emojis included in a tweet. We used a Support Vector Machine classifier, and obtained promising results. We also carried on experiments in an unconstrained setting.

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An Italian Twitter Corpus of Hate Speech against Immigrants
Manuela Sanguinetti | Fabio Poletto | Cristina Bosco | Viviana Patti | Marco Stranisci
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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Application and Analysis of a Multi-layered Scheme for Irony on the Italian Twitter Corpus TWITTIRÒ
Alessandra Teresa Cignarella | Cristina Bosco | Viviana Patti | Mirko Lai
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

2017

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Exploring the Impact of Pragmatic Phenomena on Irony Detection in Tweets: A Multilingual Corpus Study
Jihen Karoui | Farah Benamara | Véronique Moriceau | Viviana Patti | Cristina Bosco | Nathalie Aussenac-Gilles
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 1, Long Papers

This paper provides a linguistic and pragmatic analysis of the phenomenon of irony in order to represent how Twitter’s users exploit irony devices within their communication strategies for generating textual contents. We aim to measure the impact of a wide-range of pragmatic phenomena in the interpretation of irony, and to investigate how these phenomena interact with contexts local to the tweet. Informed by linguistic theories, we propose for the first time a multi-layered annotation schema for irony and its application to a corpus of French, English and Italian tweets. We detail each layer, explore their interactions, and discuss our results according to a qualitative and quantitative perspective.

2016

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Tweeting and Being Ironic in the Debate about a Political Reform: the French Annotated Corpus TWitter-MariagePourTous
Cristina Bosco | Mirko Lai | Viviana Patti | Daniela Virone
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

The paper introduces a new annotated French data set for Sentiment Analysis, which is a currently missing resource. It focuses on the collection from Twitter of data related to the socio-political debate about the reform of the bill for wedding in France. The design of the annotation scheme is described, which extends a polarity label set by making available tags for marking target semantic areas and figurative language devices. The annotation process is presented and the disagreement discussed, in particular, in the perspective of figurative language use and in that of the semantic oriented annotation, which are open challenges for NLP systems.

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Annotating Sentiment and Irony in the Online Italian Political Debate on #labuonascuola
Marco Stranisci | Cristina Bosco | Delia Irazú Hernández Farías | Viviana Patti
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

In this paper we present the TWitterBuonaScuola corpus (TW-BS), a novel Italian linguistic resource for Sentiment Analysis, developed with the main aim of analyzing the online debate on the controversial Italian political reform “Buona Scuola” (Good school), aimed at reorganizing the national educational and training systems. We describe the methodologies applied in the collection and annotation of data. The collection has been driven by the detection of the hashtags mainly used by the participants to the debate, while the annotation has been focused on sentiment polarity and irony, but also extended to mark the aspects of the reform that were mainly discussed in the debate. An in-depth study of the disagreement among annotators is included. We describe the collection and annotation stages, and the in-depth analysis of disagreement made with Crowdflower, a crowdsourcing annotation platform.

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Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Modeling of People’s Opinions, Personality, and Emotions in Social Media (PEOPLES)
Malvina Nissim | Viviana Patti | Barbara Plank
Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Modeling of People’s Opinions, Personality, and Emotions in Social Media (PEOPLES)

2015

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ValenTo: Sentiment Analysis of Figurative Language Tweets with Irony and Sarcasm
Delia Irazú Hernández Farías | Emilio Sulis | Viviana Patti | Giancarlo Ruffo | Cristina Bosco
Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2015)