Vladimir Araujo


2022

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DACT-BERT: Differentiable Adaptive Computation Time for an Efficient BERT Inference
Cristobal Eyzaguirre | Felipe del Rio | Vladimir Araujo | Alvaro Soto
Proceedings of NLP Power! The First Workshop on Efficient Benchmarking in NLP

Large-scale pre-trained language models have shown remarkable results in diverse NLP applications. However, these performance gains have been accompanied by a significant increase in computation time and model size, stressing the need to develop new or complementary strategies to increase the efficiency of these models. This paper proposes DACT-BERT, a differentiable adaptive computation time strategy for BERT-like models. DACT-BERT adds an adaptive computational mechanism to BERT’s regular processing pipeline, which controls the number of Transformer blocks that need to be executed at inference time. By doing this, the model learns to combine the most appropriate intermediate representations for the task at hand. Our experiments demonstrate that our approach, when compared to the baselines, excels on a reduced computational regime and is competitive in other less restrictive ones. Code available at https://github.com/ceyzaguirre4/dact_bert.

2021

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Stress Test Evaluation of Biomedical Word Embeddings
Vladimir Araujo | Andrés Carvallo | Carlos Aspillaga | Camilo Thorne | Denis Parra
Proceedings of the 20th Workshop on Biomedical Language Processing

The success of pretrained word embeddings has motivated their use in the biomedical domain, with contextualized embeddings yielding remarkable results in several biomedical NLP tasks. However, there is a lack of research on quantifying their behavior under severe “stress” scenarios. In this work, we systematically evaluate three language models with adversarial examples – automatically constructed tests that allow us to examine how robust the models are. We propose two types of stress scenarios focused on the biomedical named entity recognition (NER) task, one inspired by spelling errors and another based on the use of synonyms for medical terms. Our experiments with three benchmarks show that the performance of the original models decreases considerably, in addition to revealing their weaknesses and strengths. Finally, we show that adversarial training causes the models to improve their robustness and even to exceed the original performance in some cases.

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Augmenting BERT-style Models with Predictive Coding to Improve Discourse-level Representations
Vladimir Araujo | Andrés Villa | Marcelo Mendoza | Marie-Francine Moens | Alvaro Soto
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Current language models are usually trained using a self-supervised scheme, where the main focus is learning representations at the word or sentence level. However, there has been limited progress in generating useful discourse-level representations. In this work, we propose to use ideas from predictive coding theory to augment BERT-style language models with a mechanism that allows them to learn suitable discourse-level representations. As a result, our proposed approach is able to predict future sentences using explicit top-down connections that operate at the intermediate layers of the network. By experimenting with benchmarks designed to evaluate discourse-related knowledge using pre-trained sentence representations, we demonstrate that our approach improves performance in 6 out of 11 tasks by excelling in discourse relationship detection.

2020

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Translating Natural Language Instructions for Behavioral Robot Navigation with a Multi-Head Attention Mechanism
Patricio Cerda-Mardini | Vladimir Araujo | Álvaro Soto
Proceedings of the The Fourth Widening Natural Language Processing Workshop

We propose a multi-head attention mechanism as a blending layer in a neural network model that translates natural language to a high level behavioral language for indoor robot navigation. We follow the framework established by (Zang et al., 2018a) that proposes the use of a navigation graph as a knowledge base for the task. Our results show significant performance gains when translating instructions on previously unseen environments, therefore, improving the generalization capabilities of the model.

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Stress Test Evaluation of Transformer-based Models in Natural Language Understanding Tasks
Carlos Aspillaga | Andrés Carvallo | Vladimir Araujo
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

There has been significant progress in recent years in the field of Natural Language Processing thanks to the introduction of the Transformer architecture. Current state-of-the-art models, via a large number of parameters and pre-training on massive text corpus, have shown impressive results on several downstream tasks. Many researchers have studied previous (non-Transformer) models to understand their actual behavior under different scenarios, showing that these models are taking advantage of clues or failures of datasets and that slight perturbations on the input data can severely reduce their performance. In contrast, recent models have not been systematically tested with adversarial-examples in order to show their robustness under severe stress conditions. For that reason, this work evaluates three Transformer-based models (RoBERTa, XLNet, and BERT) in Natural Language Inference (NLI) and Question Answering (QA) tasks to know if they are more robust or if they have the same flaws as their predecessors. As a result, our experiments reveal that RoBERTa, XLNet and BERT are more robust than recurrent neural network models to stress tests for both NLI and QA tasks. Nevertheless, they are still very fragile and demonstrate various unexpected behaviors, thus revealing that there is still room for future improvement in this field.