Session-based Social Recommendation (SSR) aims to use users’ social networks and historical sessions to provide more personalized recommendations for the current session.Unfortunately, existing SSR methods have two limitations.First, they do not screen users’ useless social relationships and noisy irrelevant interactions.However, user preferences are mainly affected by several close friends and key interactions.Second, when modeling the current session, they do not take full advantage of user preference information.To tackle these issues, we propose a novel Social-aware Sparse Attention Network for SSR, abbreviated as SSAN.It mainly consists of the Heterogeneous Graph Embedding (HGE) module and the Social-aware Encoder-decoder Network (SEN) module.In the HGE module, we adopt a modified heterogeneous graph neural network, which focuses more on close friends and key historical interactions, to enhance user/item representations. In the SEN module, we use the user representation as a bridge between the Encoder and Decoder to incorporate user preferences when modeling the current session.Extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets demonstrate the superiority of SSAN over the state-of-the-art models.
In recent years, reference-based and supervised summarization evaluation metrics have been widely explored. However, collecting human-annotated references and ratings are costly and time-consuming. To avoid these limitations, we propose a training-free and reference-free summarization evaluation metric. Our metric consists of a centrality-weighted relevance score and a self-referenced redundancy score. The relevance score is computed between the pseudo reference built from the source document and the given summary, where the pseudo reference content is weighted by the sentence centrality to provide importance guidance. Besides an F1-based relevance score, we also design an F𝛽-based variant that pays more attention to the recall score. As for the redundancy score of the summary, we compute a self-masked similarity score with the summary itself to evaluate the redundant information in the summary. Finally, we combine the relevance and redundancy scores to produce the final evaluation score of the given summary. Extensive experiments show that our methods can significantly outperform existing methods on both multi-document and single-document summarization evaluation. The source code is released at https://github.com/Chen-Wang-CUHK/Training-Free-and-Ref-Free-Summ-Evaluation.
Keyphrase generation (KG) aims to summarize the main ideas of a document into a set of keyphrases. A new setting is recently introduced into this problem, in which, given a document, the model needs to predict a set of keyphrases and simultaneously determine the appropriate number of keyphrases to produce. Previous work in this setting employs a sequential decoding process to generate keyphrases. However, such a decoding method ignores the intrinsic hierarchical compositionality existing in the keyphrase set of a document. Moreover, previous work tends to generate duplicated keyphrases, which wastes time and computing resources. To overcome these limitations, we propose an exclusive hierarchical decoding framework that includes a hierarchical decoding process and either a soft or a hard exclusion mechanism. The hierarchical decoding process is to explicitly model the hierarchical compositionality of a keyphrase set. Both the soft and the hard exclusion mechanisms keep track of previously-predicted keyphrases within a window size to enhance the diversity of the generated keyphrases. Extensive experiments on multiple KG benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method to generate less duplicated and more accurate keyphrases.
Generating keyphrases that summarize the main points of a document is a fundamental task in natural language processing. Although existing generative models are capable of predicting multiple keyphrases for an input document as well as determining the number of keyphrases to generate, they still suffer from the problem of generating too few keyphrases. To address this problem, we propose a reinforcement learning (RL) approach for keyphrase generation, with an adaptive reward function that encourages a model to generate both sufficient and accurate keyphrases. Furthermore, we introduce a new evaluation method that incorporates name variations of the ground-truth keyphrases using the Wikipedia knowledge base. Thus, our evaluation method can more robustly evaluate the quality of predicted keyphrases. Extensive experiments on five real-world datasets of different scales demonstrate that our RL approach consistently and significantly improves the performance of the state-of-the-art generative models with both conventional and new evaluation methods.
In this paper, we present a novel integrated approach for keyphrase generation (KG). Unlike previous works which are purely extractive or generative, we first propose a new multi-task learning framework that jointly learns an extractive model and a generative model. Besides extracting keyphrases, the output of the extractive model is also employed to rectify the copy probability distribution of the generative model, such that the generative model can better identify important contents from the given document. Moreover, we retrieve similar documents with the given document from training data and use their associated keyphrases as external knowledge for the generative model to produce more accurate keyphrases. For further exploiting the power of extraction and retrieval, we propose a neural-based merging module to combine and re-rank the predicted keyphrases from the enhanced generative model, the extractive model, and the retrieved keyphrases. Experiments on the five KG benchmarks demonstrate that our integrated approach outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.